De facto

de facto relationshipde-factode facto'' segregationde facto capitalde facto standardde facto'' relationshipsFor all intents and purposesin realityAlcalde en propiedadcommon-law
In law, government and official unit, the term de facto (de facto, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws.wikipedia
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De facto standard

de facto'' standardde factode facto'' standards
A [[de facto standard|]] is a standard (formal or informal) that has achieved a dominant position by tradition, enforcement, or market dominance.
De facto is a Latin phrase that means in fact (literally by or from fact) in the sense of "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established", as opposed to de jure.

National language

main languagenationalmajority language
Several countries, including Australia, Japan, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States, have a de facto national language but no official, de jure national language.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

Ba'athist Iraq

IraqBaathist IraqIraqi
Similarly, Saddam Hussein's formal rule of Iraq is often recorded as beginning in 1979, the year he assumed the Presidency of Iraq.
Saddam through his post as de facto chief of the party's intelligence services, became the country's de facto leader by the mid-1970s, and became de jure leader in 1979 when he succeeded al-Bakr in office as President.

Dictator

dictatorialdictatorsdictatorial powers
Not all dictators are de facto rulers.
The term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century (during which the office was ostensibly abolished) as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Several countries, including Australia, Japan, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States, have a de facto national language but no official, de jure national language.
English (specifically, American English) is the de facto national language of the United States.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
For example, Augusto Pinochet of Chile initially came to power as the chairperson of a military junta, which briefly made him de facto leader of Chile, but he later amended the nation's constitution and made himself president for life, making him the formal and legal ruler of Chile.
Of the ten governments that held power in that period, the longest lasting was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship (although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that has often bedeviled the rest of Latin America).

1943 Argentine coup d'état

Revolution of '431943 coup d'étatcoup d'état
In Argentina, the successive military coups that overthrew constitutional governments installed de facto governments in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983, the last of which combined the powers of the presidential office with those of the National Congress.
On September 10, 1930, Uriburu was recognized as de facto president of the nation by the Supreme Court.

Argentine Revolution

Revolución Argentinamilitary coup1966 coup d'état
In Argentina, the successive military coups that overthrew constitutional governments installed de facto governments in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983, the last of which combined the powers of the presidential office with those of the National Congress.
The June 1966 coup established General Juan Carlos Onganía as de facto president, supported by several leaders of the General Confederation of Labour (CGT), including the general secretary Augusto Vandor.

De facto government doctrine

De factode facto governmentde facto'' governments
The subsequent legal analysis of the validity of such actions led to the formulation of a doctrine of the de facto governments, a case law (precedential) formulation which essentially said that the actions and decrees of past de facto governments, although not rooted in legal legitimacy when taken, remained binding until and unless such time as they were revoked or repealed de jure by a subsequent legitimate government.
The de facto government doctrine is an element of Argentine case law related to the validity of the actions of de facto governments.

Manuel Noriega

Manuel Antonio NoriegaNoriegaManuel Noreiga
Some other notable true de facto leaders have been Deng Xiaoping of the People's Republic of China and General Manuel Noriega of Panama.
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
Several countries, including Australia, Japan, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States, have a de facto national language but no official, de jure national language.
Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of the population, making Mexico the world's most populous Hispanophone country.

Australia

AUSAustralianCommonwealth of Australia
Several countries, including Australia, Japan, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States, have a de facto national language but no official, de jure national language.
Although Australia has no official language, English is the de facto national language.

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General SecretarySoviet General SecretaryFirst Secretary
In the Soviet Union, after Vladimir Lenin was incapacitated from a stroke in 1923, Joseph Stalin—who, as General Secretary of the Communist Party had the power to appoint anyone he chose to top party positions—eventually emerged as leader of the Party and the legitimate government.
With a few exceptions, from 1929 until the union's dissolution the holder of the office was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union, because the post controlled both the CPSU and the Soviet government.

Fact

factsscientific factaccurate
In law, government and official unit, the term de facto (de facto, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws.

Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr

Ahmad Hasan al-BakrAhmed Hasan al-BakrAhmad Hassan al-Bakr
However, his de facto rule of the nation began earlier: during his time as vice president; he exercised a great deal of power at the expense of the elderly Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the de jure president.
By the late-1970s, Saddam had de facto control over Iraq's economic development by being chairman of the most important economic committees.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
In Argentina, the successive military coups that overthrew constitutional governments installed de facto governments in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983, the last of which combined the powers of the presidential office with those of the National Congress.
The de facto official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all Argentines.

Empress Dowager Cixi

CixiEmpress DowagerTzu Hsi
Some examples of these de facto rulers are Empress Dowager Cixi of China (for son Tongzhi and nephew Guangxu Emperors), Prince Alexander Menshikov (for his former lover Empress Catherine I of Russia), Cardinal Richelieu of France (for Louis XIII) and Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily (for her husband King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies).
While Cixi aligned herself with the two princes, a memorial came from Shandong asking for her to "listen to politics behind the curtains," i.e., to assume power as de facto ruler.

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
In the Westminster system of government, executive authority is often split between a de jure executive authority of a head of state and a de facto executive authority of a prime minister and cabinet who implement executive powers in the name of the de jure executive authority.
In the 1870s in the United States, in the aftermath of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson and his near-removal from office, it was speculated that the United States, too, would move from a presidential system to a semi-presidential or even parliamentary one, with the speaker of the House of Representatives becoming the real center of government as a quasi-prime minister.

Racial segregation

segregationsegregatedsegregationist
De facto racial discrimination and segregation in the United States (outside of the South) until the 1950s and 1960s was simply discrimination that was segregation by law (de jure).
However, racial segregation may exist de facto through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
In the Westminster system of government, executive authority is often split between a de jure executive authority of a head of state and a de facto executive authority of a prime minister and cabinet who implement executive powers in the name of the de jure executive authority.
As an example, the prime minister and cabinet (as the de facto executive body in the system) generally must seek the permission of the head of state when carrying out executive functions.

Prime minister

prime ministersPMchief minister
In the Westminster system of government, executive authority is often split between a de jure executive authority of a head of state and a de facto executive authority of a prime minister and cabinet who implement executive powers in the name of the de jure executive authority.
Though it had de facto existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century.

President of Argentina

PresidentArgentine Presidentpresidency
In Argentina, the successive military coups that overthrew constitutional governments installed de facto governments in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983, the last of which combined the powers of the presidential office with those of the National Congress.
Following military coups that overthrew the constitutional government were de facto military presidents in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983 that brought in addition to the powers of the president also corresponding to Congress.

Common-law marriage

common-law wifecommon law marriagecommon-law
The above sense of de facto is related to the relationship between common law traditions and formal (statutory, regulatory, civil) law, and common-law marriages.
Non-marital relationship contracts are not necessarily recognized from one jurisdiction to another, and neither are de facto couples, whereas common-law marriages, being a legal marriage, are valid marriages worldwide (if the parties complied with the requirements to form a valid marriage while living in a jurisdiction that allows this form of marriage to be contracted).

Federation

federalfederal governmentfederal state
The same concepts may also apply to a boundary between provinces or other subdivisions of a federal state.
The EU is therefore not a de jure federation, although some academic observers conclude that after 50 years of institutional evolution since the Treaties of Rome it is becoming one.