A report on De facto

De facto political map of the world, May 2019.

De facto (de facto, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, whether or not they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms.

- De facto
De facto political map of the world, May 2019.

30 related topics with Alpha

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Argentina

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Country in the southern half of South America.

Country in the southern half of South America.

The surrender of Beresford to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata
Portrait of General José de San Martin, Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru.
People gathered in front of the Buenos Aires Cabildo during the May Revolution
Julio Argentino Roca was a major figure of the Generation of '80 and is known for directing the "Conquest of the Desert". During his two terms as President many changes occurred, particularly major infrastructure projects of railroads; large-scale immigration from Europe and laicizing legislation strengthening state power.
Official presidential portrait of Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1948
Admiral Emilio Massera, Lieutenant General Jorge Videla and Brigadier General Orlando Agosti (from left to right) – observing the Independence Day military parade on Avenida del Libertador, 9 July 1978.
Two members of the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers guarding the Constitution of the Argentine Nation inside the Palace of the Congress.
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside of Asia, at 6960.8 m, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
The national animal of Argentina is the Rufous hornero, a small songbird native to South America
Argentina features geographical locations such as this glacier, known as the Perito Moreno Glacier
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
The National Congress composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
Provinces of Argentina.
G 20 leaders gathered in Argentina for the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit.
Diplomatic missions of Argentina.
Argentine destroyer ARA Almirante Brown (D-10)
A proportional representation of Argentina exports, 2019
The Catalinas Norte is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies.
Atucha Nuclear Power Plant was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. The electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear reactors: The Embalse Nuclear Power Station, the Atucha I and II.
Buenos Aires Underground is the oldest underground railway in Latin America, the Southern Hemisphere and the Spanish speaking world.
"Estudio País 24, the Program of the Argentines" in Channel 7, the first television station in the country
SAC-D is an Argentine earth science satellite built by INVAP and launched in 2011.
President Macri in the INVAP with the SAOCOM A and B, two planned Earth observation satellite constellation of Argentine Space Agency CONAE. the scheduled launch dates for 1A and 1B were further pushed back to 2018 and 2020.
The cacique Qom Félix Díaz meets with then president Mauricio Macri.
Over 25 million Argentines have at least one Italian immigrant ancestor.
Dialectal variants of the Spanish language in Argentina
Francis, the first pope from the Americas, was born and raised in Argentina.
Argentina has historically been placed high in the global rankings of literacy, with rates similar to those of developed countries.
The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's 3,000 medical graduates, annually
El Ateneo Grand Splendid was named the second most beautiful bookshop in the world by The Guardian.
Sun of May on the first Argentine coin, 1813
Four of the most influential Argentine writers. Top-left to bottom-right: Julio Cortázar, Victoria Ocampo, Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares
Martha Argerich, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the second half of the 20th century
Andy Muschietti, director of It, the highest-grossing horror film of all-time.
Las Nereidas Font by Lola Mora
View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte, on Buenos Aires' historical centre. The city's characteristic convergence of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts, and modernist architecture.
Diego Maradona, one of the FIFA Player of the 20th Century
Lionel Messi, seven times Ballon d'Or winner, is the current captain of the Argentina national football team.
Argentine beef as asado, a traditional dish
The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with artwork dating from 13,000 to 9,000 years ago.
Carlos Gardel, the most prominent figure in the history of tango
Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1947
Argentine Polo Open Championship.
Civilian casualties after the air attack and massacre on Plaza de Mayo, June 1955
Juan Perón and his wife Isabel Perón, 1973
Argentinians soldiers during the Falklands War
Néstor Kirchner and his wife and political successor, Cristina Kirchner
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside of Asia, at 6960.8 m, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
Argentina map of Köppen climate classification
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
The National Congress composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
Provinces of Argentina
Lockheed Martin A-4AR Fightinghawk operated by the Argentine Air Force
Fiat factory in Córdoba, Argentina
Rosario-Córdoba Highway
Passenger train near Mar del Plata
Argentine provinces by population (2010)
Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires
Argentine beef as asado

During her presidency, a military junta along with the Peronists' far-right fascist faction became once again the de facto head of state.

Chile

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Country in the western part of South America.

Country in the western part of South America.

Lautaro, toqui and hero of the Arauco war
Pedro de Valdivia, conqueror of Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins, Libertador and the Supreme Director of Chile
The Battle of Iquique on 21 May 1879. The victory of Chile in the War of the Pacific allowed its expansion into new territories.
Chile's Almirante Latorre dreadnought in 1921
Salvador Allende
Fighter jets bombing the Presidential Palace of La Moneda during the Chilean coup of 1973
Augusto Pinochet
Five presidents of Chile since Transition to democracy (1990–2022), celebrating the Bicentennial of Chile
The Palacio de La Moneda in downtown Santiago
The Palace of Justice in Santiago
Chile's territorial gains after the War of the Pacific in 1879–83
Karel Doorman-class frigate
F-16 Fighting Falcon
Chile map of Köppen climate classification.
Araucaria araucana trees in Conguillío National Park.
Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), the national bird of Chile.
Topographic map of Chile. To view maps based on SRTM topographic relief of the country, see here.
Osorno Volcano and the Petrohué River
Nef Glacier and the Plomo Lake
General Carrera lake, the largest in the country.
Population of Chile from 1820, projected up to 2050
Mapuche women of Tirúa
Chileans with flags of Chile
Chilean students in Santiago de Chile
German immigrants in southern Chile
Neoclassical Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral
Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (PUC).
FONASA is the funding branch of the Ministry of Health.
A proportional representation of Chile exports, 2019
Chilean (blue) and average Latin American (orange) GDP per capita (1980–2017)
The financial district in Santiago de Chile
Santiago Stock Exchange
Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world
Vineyard in the Casablanca Valley
Elqui Valley, wine and pisco region
Valparaíso
Puerto Varas
The Santiago Metro is South America's most extensive metro system
Torre Entel in Santiago de Chile, with the Andes mountains in the background
La Zamacueca, by Manuel Antonio Caro.
Chilean asado (barbecue) and marraqueta
Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos
The Chilean national polo team with President Michelle Bachelet and the trophy of the 2015 World Polo Championship.
State of Chile's international relations in the world:
Chile
Country with diplomatic relations and Chilean embassy in the country.
Country with diplomatic relations and an embassy in Chile, but no Chilean embassy.
Country with diplomatic relations but without ambassadors.
Country with no diplomatic relations currently.

Of the ten governments that held power in that period, the longest lasting was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship (although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that have often bedeviled the rest of Latin America).

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Federation

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Political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism).

Political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism).

The pathway of regional integration or separation
A map of the Russian Federation, showing its eighty-three federal subjects before the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
A map of Brazil, showing its twenty-six constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, showing its 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Mexico City.
A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the District of Columbia.
A map of Canada showing its ten provinces and three territories.
A map of Australia showing its six states and ten territories.
A political map of India showing 28 states and 8 union territories including the National Capital Territory.
A map of the Federal Republic of Germany showing its sixteen constituent states (Länder) including three city-states.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Autonomous communities of Spain.
Provinces of South Africa.
The United Provinces of Central America was a short-lived federal republic
Federal states
Unitary states

The EU is therefore not a de jure federation, although some academic observers conclude that after 50 years of institutional evolution since the Treaties of Rome it is becoming one.

Official portrait,

Augusto Pinochet

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Official portrait,
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger with Pinochet in 1976
Junta session one week after the 1973 coup
Pinochet in 1982
Pinochet meeting with U.S. President Jimmy Carter in Washington, D.C., September 6, 1977
Women of the Association of Families of the Detained-Disappeared demonstrate in front of La Moneda Palace during the Pinochet military regime
Orlando Letelier, a former Chilean minister, was assassinated in Washington, D.C. in 1976.
Memorial to victims of Pinochet's regime
Pinochet as Commander-in-Chief and President Aylwin meeting with U.S. President George H. W. Bush in 1990
Pinochet congratulates new President Patricio Aylwin after handing over the presidential sash, marking the transfer of power from military dictatorship to democratic leadership, 11 March 1990.
Photographs of victims of Pinochet's regime
Image showing Pinochet in an event with background imagery comparing the year of Chilean independence, 1810, with 1973, the year of the coup d'état that brought Pinochet to power
Pinochet in 1995
Documentation of some of Pinochet's many United States bank accounts
Pinochet on the bier on 11 December 2006
Pinochet's funeral

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (,, , ; 25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general who ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, first as the leader of the Military Junta of Chile from 1973 to 1981, being declared President of the Republic by the junta in 1974 and becoming the de facto dictator of Chile, and from 1981 to 1990 as de jure President after a new Constitution, which confirmed him in the office, was approved by a referendum in 1980.

1943 saw great growth in industry and the working class. The socioeconomic changes anticipated major sociopolitical changes.

1943 Argentine coup d'état

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Coup d'état on 5 June 1943 that ended the government of Ramón Castillo, who had been fraudulently elected to the office of vice-president before succeeding to the presidency in 1942 as part of the period known as the Infamous Decade.

Coup d'état on 5 June 1943 that ended the government of Ramón Castillo, who had been fraudulently elected to the office of vice-president before succeeding to the presidency in 1942 as part of the period known as the Infamous Decade.

1943 saw great growth in industry and the working class. The socioeconomic changes anticipated major sociopolitical changes.
Generals Arturo Rawson and Pedro Pablo Ramírez greet a crowd at Plaza de Mayo on the day of the coup.
Hotel Jousten, on Corrientes Avenue in Buenos Aires. The group of conspirators known as the "Jousten Generals" gathered here.
General Pedro Pablo Ramírez swearing into office on 7 June 1943. Ramirez was president during the first eight months of the Revolution of '43.
The U.S. Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, provoked the resignation of the "pro-Allied" Argentinian Chancellor, Admiral Segundo Storni and his replacement by the "pro-neutral" Colonel Alberto Gilbert.
A railway workers union newspaper supporting Perón. Coronel Perón established an alliance with a vast group of unions of various ideologies, who organized as the labor-nationalist current that profoundly influenced the course of the Revolution of 43.
General Edelmiro Farrell was president during the last two years of the Revolution of 43. He established a close alliance with Coronel Juan Perón.
Farrell and his cabinet. In the first row: Alberto Tessaire, Diego Mason, Juan Perón, Peluffo and Juan Pistarini
The technical schools created by Juan Perón were part of a demand by the unions and a policy of industrialization. From 1941 to 1946 the industrial working class had increased 38%, from 677,517 to 938,387 workers.
Altos Hornos Zapla, located in the Jujuy Province, Argentina.
Spruille Braden, the new ambassador of the United States in Argentina, arrived in Buenos Aires on 19 May 1945. He was one of the main organizers of anti-Peronism.
«Las patas en la fuente», a famous photo of the peronist demonstration known as Loyalty Day (October 17, 1945), which obtained the liberation of Juan Perón.

On 10 September 1930, Uriburu was recognized as de facto president of the nation by the Supreme Court.

Generals Juan Carlos Onganía, Marcelo Levingston and Alejandro Lanusse, the three successive dictators of the "Revolución Argentina".

Argentine Revolution

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The name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état which overthrew the government of Argentina in June 1966 and began a period of military dictatorship by a junta from then until 1973.

The name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état which overthrew the government of Argentina in June 1966 and began a period of military dictatorship by a junta from then until 1973.

Generals Juan Carlos Onganía, Marcelo Levingston and Alejandro Lanusse, the three successive dictators of the "Revolución Argentina".
The Night of the Long Batons, an Onganía police action against University of Buenos Aires students and faculty came to be known.
Images of the Cordobazo, May–June 1969

The June 1966 coup established General Juan Carlos Onganía as de facto president, supported by several leaders of the General Confederation of Labour (CGT), including the general secretary Augusto Vandor.

De facto government doctrine

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The de facto government doctrine is an element of Argentine case law related to the validity of the actions of de facto governments.

Bernardino Rivadavia, the first president of the Argentine Republic

President of Argentina

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Both head of state and head of government of Argentina.

Both head of state and head of government of Argentina.

Bernardino Rivadavia, the first president of the Argentine Republic
Casa Rosada
The president's office
Quinta de Olivos
Presidential armchair
Audi A8
Tango 01

Following military coups that overthrew the constitutional government were de facto military presidents in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983 that brought in addition to the powers of the president also corresponding to Congress.

The logo of the Swiss Federal administration, in the four national languages of Switzerland.

National language

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The logo of the Swiss Federal administration, in the four national languages of Switzerland.

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a nation.

Hemisphere view

Russian language

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East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia.

East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia.

Hemisphere view
Competence of Russian in countries of the former Soviet Union (except Russia), 2004
Percentage of people in Ukraine with Russian as their native language (according to a 2001 census) (by region)
A page from Azbuka (Alphabet book), the first East Slavic printed textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574 in Lviv. This page features the Cyrillic script.
Russian vowel chart by
This page from an "ABC" book printed in Moscow in 1694 shows the letter П.
The Ostromir Gospels of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library.

It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.