Death

The human skull is used universally as a symbol of death
Statue of Death, personified as a human skeleton dressed in a shroud and clutching a scythe, from the Cathedral of Trier in Trier, Germany
Death tending to his flowers, in Kuoleman Puutarha, Hugo Simberg (1906)
World Health Organization estimated number of deaths per million persons in 2012
A flower, a skull and an hourglass stand for life, death and time in this 17th-century painting by Philippe de Champaigne
French – 16th-/17th-century ivory pendant, Monk and Death, recalling mortality and the certainty of death (Walters Art Museum)
Timeline of postmortem changes (stages of death).
Antoine Wiertz's painting of a man buried alive
American children smoking in 1910. Tobacco smoking caused an estimated 100 million deaths in the 20th century.
Le Suicidé by Édouard Manet depicts a man who has recently committed suicide via a firearm
An autopsy is portrayed in The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, by Rembrandt
Dead Camelthorn tree within Sossusvlei
Technicians prepare a body for cryopreservation in 1985.
Kyösti Kallio (in the middle), the fourth President of the Republic of Finland, had a fatal heart attack a few seconds after this photograph was taken by Hugo Sundström on December 19, 1940 at Helsinki railway station in Helsinki, Finland.
The regent duke Charles (later king Charles IX of Sweden) insulting the corpse of Klaus Fleming. Albert Edelfelt, 1878
Dead bodies can be mummified either naturally, as this one from Guanajuato, or by intention, as those in ancient Egypt
Gravestones in Kyoto, Japan
All is Vanity by Charles Allan Gilbert is an example of a memento mori, intended to represent how life and death are intertwined
Santa Muerte, the personification of death in Mexican tradition
Earthworms are soil-dwelling detritivores
A dodo, the bird that became a byword in the English language for the extinction of a species
Illustration depicting Hindu beliefs about reincarnation
A yahrzeit candle lit in memory of a loved one on the anniversary of the death
Study of Skeletons, c. 1510, by Leonardo da Vinci

Irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain an organism.

- Death
The human skull is used universally as a symbol of death

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Radionuclide scan: No intracranial blood flow. The "hot-nose" sign is shown.

Brain death

Permanent, irreversible, and complete loss of brain function which may include cessation of involuntary activity necessary to sustain life.

Permanent, irreversible, and complete loss of brain function which may include cessation of involuntary activity necessary to sustain life.

Radionuclide scan: No intracranial blood flow. The "hot-nose" sign is shown.

Traditionally, both the legal and medical communities determined death through the permanent end of certain bodily functions in clinical death, especially respiration and heartbeat.

CPR being administered during a simulation of cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest

Sudden loss of blood flow throughout the body resulting from the heart not being able to pump blood efficiently.

Sudden loss of blood flow throughout the body resulting from the heart not being able to pump blood efficiently.

CPR being administered during a simulation of cardiac arrest
Conduction of the heart. Changes in this pattern can result from injury to the cardiac muscle and lead to non-conducted beats and ultimately cardiac arrest.
Ventricular fibrillation
Normal vs blocked coronary artery
Short axis view of the heart demonstrating wall thickening in left ventricular hypertrophy
EKG depiction of left ventricular hypertrophy
Medical personnel checking the carotid pulse of a patient
CPR training on a mannequin
An automated external defibrillator stored in a visible orange mural support
Lipid emulsion as used in cardiac arrest due to local anesthetic agents
Illustration of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

If not intervened by CPR and defibrillation, cardiac arrest typically leads to death within minutes.

A grandmother and her grandchild watching the Nowruz ceremony, showing stark contrast in physical appearance

Ageing

Process of becoming older.

Process of becoming older.

A grandmother and her grandchild watching the Nowruz ceremony, showing stark contrast in physical appearance
Immortal Hydra, a relative of the jellyfish
Enlarged ears and noses of old humans are sometimes blamed on continual cartilage growth, but the cause is more probably gravity.
Age dynamics of the body mass (1, 2) and mass normalized to height (3, 4) of men (1, 3) and women (2, 4)
Comparison of a normal aged brain (left) and a brain affected by Alzheimer's disease
95-year-old woman holding a five-month-old boy
An elderly Somali woman
An elderly man
A map showing median age figures for 2017
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg: Ages of Man

Thus, this leads to a gradual decline in physical and mental capacity, a growing risk of diseases, and ultimately, death.

Irreversible adiabatic process: If the cylinder is a perfect insulator, the initial top-left state cannot be reached anymore after it is changed to the one on the top-right. Instead, the state on the bottom left is assumed when going back to the original pressure because energy is converted into heat.

Irreversible process

Not reversible is called irreversible.

Not reversible is called irreversible.

Irreversible adiabatic process: If the cylinder is a perfect insulator, the initial top-left state cannot be reached anymore after it is changed to the one on the top-right. Instead, the state on the bottom left is assumed when going back to the original pressure because energy is converted into heat.

Death

Structural changes of cells undergoing necrosis and apoptosis

Necrosis

Structural changes of cells undergoing necrosis and apoptosis
Necrotic leg wound caused by a brown recluse spider bite
Karyolysis (and contraction band necrosis) in myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Pyknosis in a bile infarct
Cytoplasmic hypereosinophilia (seen in left half of image).
Pseudopalisading seen around necrosis in glioblastoma.

Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

Cyanosis of the hand in an elderly person with low oxygen saturation

Hypoxia (medical)

Condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

Condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

Cyanosis of the hand in an elderly person with low oxygen saturation

In severe hypoxia, or hypoxia of very rapid onset, ataxia, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, behavioral change, severe headaches, reduced level of consciousness, papilloedema, breathlessness, pallor, tachycardia, and pulmonary hypertension eventually leading to the late signs cyanosis, slow heart rate, cor pulmonale, and low blood pressure followed by heart failure eventually leading to shock and death.

Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)

Hell

Location in the afterlife in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, most often through torture, as eternal punishment after death.

Location in the afterlife in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, most often through torture, as eternal punishment after death.

Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)
Hell – detail from a fresco in the medieval church of St Nicholas in Raduil, Bulgaria
Hel (1889) by Johannes Gehrts, depicts the Old Norse Hel, a goddess-like figure, in the location of the same name, which she oversees
Preserved colonial wall painting of 1802 depicting Hell, by Tadeo Escalante, inside the Church of San Juan Bautista in Huaro, Peru
In this ~1275 BC Book of the Dead scene the dead scribe Hunefer's heart is weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the canine-headed Anubis. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the crocodile-headed Ammit.
Ancient Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing the god Dumuzid being tortured in the Underworld by galla demons
"Gehenna", Valley of Hinnom, 2007
The parable of the Rich man and Lazarus depicting the rich man in hell asking for help to Abraham and Lazarus in heaven by James Tissot
Harrowing of Hell. Christ leads Adam by the hand, c.1504
The Last Judgment, Hell, c.1431, by Fra Angelico
Muhammad, along with Buraq and Gabriel, visit hell, and they see "shameless women" being eternally punished for exposing their hair to the sight of strangers. Persian, 15th century.
Muhammad requests Maalik to show him Hell during his heavenly journey. Miniature from The David Collection.
Naraka in the Burmese representation
Yama's Court and Hell. The Blue figure is Yamaraja (The Hindu god of death) with his consort Yami and Chitragupta
17th-century painting from Government Museum, Chennai.
17th-century cloth painting depicting seven levels of Jain Hell and various tortures suffered in them. Left panel depicts the demi-god and his animal vehicle presiding over each Hell.
A Chinese glazed earthenware sculpture of "Hell's torturer", 16th century, Ming Dynasty
Dante and Virgil in Hell (1850) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In this painting, the two are shown watching the condemned.
Visit to hell by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega

Rejection and becoming a wandering soul is a sort of hell for one passing over.

A healthcare provider performing manual ventilation via bag-valve mask on a patient.

Respiratory arrest

Sickness caused by apnea or respiratory dysfunction severe enough it will not sustain the body (such as agonal breathing).

Sickness caused by apnea or respiratory dysfunction severe enough it will not sustain the body (such as agonal breathing).

A healthcare provider performing manual ventilation via bag-valve mask on a patient.

Brain injury is likely if respiratory arrest goes untreated for more than three minutes, and death is almost certain if more than five minutes.

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

Malaria

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster

In severe cases, it can cause jaundice, seizures, coma, or death.

The Suicide by Édouard Manet

Suicide

The Suicide by Édouard Manet
A picture of a woman with depression, who was suicidal
"The Drunkard's Progress", 1846 demonstrating how alcoholism can lead to poverty, crime, and eventually suicide
In Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther, the title character kills himself due to a love triangle involving Charlotte (pictured at his grave). Some admirers of the story were triggered into copycat suicide, known as the "Werther effect".
Teenage recruits for Japanese Kamikaze suicide pilots in May 1945
SEPPUKU
Deaths by gun-related suicide versus non-gun-related suicide rates per 100,000 in high-income countries in 2010
A suicide prevention fence on a bridge
Suicide rates by age
The Ludovisi Gaul killing himself and his wife, Roman copy after the Hellenistic original, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme
The Death of Seneca (1684), painting by Luca Giordano, depicting the suicide of Seneca the Younger in Ancient Rome
A tantō knife prepared for seppuku (abdomen-cutting)
Samurai about to perform seppuku
A Hindu widow burning herself with her husband's corpse, 1820s
In this painting by Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, the palette, pistol, and note lying on the floor suggest that the event has just taken place; an artist has taken his own life.
Japanese general Hideki Tojo, receiving treatment immediately after attempted suicide, 1945
Death rate from suicide per 100,000 as of 2017<ref>{{cite web |title=Death rate from suicides |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/suicide-death-rates |website=Our World in Data |access-date=4 March 2020}}</ref>
Share of deaths from suicide, 2017<ref>{{cite web |title=Share of deaths from suicide |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/share-deaths-suicide |website=Our World in Data |access-date=4 March 2020}}</ref>

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.