Death by burning

burned at the stakeburnt at the stakeburning at the stakeburned to deathburned aliveburningburnedburnt aliveexecution by burningimmolation
Death by burning is an execution method involving combustion or exposure to extreme heat.wikipedia
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Polycarp

Polycarp of SmyrnaSt. PolycarpSaint Polycarp
An example of this is the earliest chronicle of a martyrdom, that of Polycarp.
According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, he died a martyr, bound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire failed to consume his body.

Capital punishment

death penaltyexecutionexecuted
It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, and many societies have employed it for criminal activities such as treason, heresy and witchcraft.
In pre-modern times the executions themselves often involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, keelhauling, sawing, hanging, drawing, and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, flaying, slow slicing, boiling alive, impalement, mazzatello, blowing from a gun, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, and scaphism.

Tamar (Genesis)

TamarTamar and Judahbrother's wife
In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar—the widow of his son, living in her father's household—to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation.
Upon hearing this news, Judah ordered that she be burned to death.

Poena cullei

In the 10th century AD, the Byzantines instituted death by burning for parricides, i.e. those who had killed their own relatives, replacing the older punishment of poena cullei, the stuffing of the convict in a leather sack along with a rooster, a viper, a dog and a monkey, and then throwing the sack into the sea.
Well over 200 years later, Emperor Justinian reinstituted the punishment with the four animals, and poena cullei remained the statutory penalty for parricides within Byzantine law for the next 400 years, when it was replaced with being burned alive.

De heretico comburendo

De haeretico comburendode hæretico comburendothe death penalty for heresy and for possession of a bible
In 1401, Parliament passed the De heretico comburendo act, which can be loosely translated as "Regarding the burning of heretics."
De heretico comburendo (2 Hen.4 c.15) was a law passed by Parliament under King Henry IV of England in 1401, punishing heretics with burning at the stake.

Inquisition

Holy Inquisitioninquisitorinquisitors
Civil authorities burned persons judged to be heretics under the medieval Inquisition.
The laws were inclusive of proscriptions against certain religious crimes (heresy, etc.), and the punishments included death by burning, although usually the penalty was banishment or imprisonment for life, which was generally commuted after a few years.

Jan Hus

John HusJohn HussHus
Jan Hus was burned at the stake after being accused at the Roman Catholic Council of Constance (1414–18) of heresy. Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682).
On July 6, 1415, he was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church.

Auto-da-fé

auto de feautos-da-féauto da fé
The public executions of the Spanish Inquisition were called autos-da-fé; convicts were "released" (handed over) to secular authorities in order to be burnt.
The most extreme punishment imposed on those convicted was execution by burning.

List of methods of capital punishment

executed by hangingexecution methodExecution methods
Death by burning is an execution method involving combustion or exposure to extreme heat.

Joan of Arc

Jeanne d'ArcSaint Joan of ArcSt. Joan of Arc
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682).
After Cauchon declared her guilty, she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.

Jacques de Molay

Jacques DeMolay
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682).
When Molay later retracted his confession, Philip had him burned upon a scaffold on an island in the River Seine in front of Notre-Dame de Paris in March, 1314.

Tunica molesta

Sometimes this was by means of the tunica molesta, a flammable tunic:
A tunica molesta (Latin for "annoying shirt") was a shirt impregnated with flammable substances such as naphtha or resin, used to execute people by burning in ancient Rome.

Nicholas Ridley (martyr)

Nicholas RidleyRidleyBishop Nicholas Ridley
Anglican martyrs John Rogers, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake in 1555.
Ridley was burned at the stake as one of the Oxford Martyrs during the Marian Persecutions for his teachings and his support of Lady Jane Grey.

Mary I of England

Mary IQueen MaryMary
Mary I ordered hundreds of Protestants burnt at the stake during her reign (1553–58) in what would be known as the "Marian Persecutions" earning her the epithet of "Bloody" Mary.
During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions, which led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents.

Giordano Bruno

BrunoBruno, GiordanoBruno's cosmology
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682).
The Inquisition found him guilty, and he was burned at the stake in Rome's Campo de' Fiori in 1600.

Posthumous execution

posthumously executedexecuted posthumouslyexhumed and burnt
(This posthumous execution was carried out in 1428.)

Urbain Grandier

Father GrandierFather Urbain Grandier
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682).
Urbain Grandier (born in 1590 in Bouère, Mayenne – died on 18 August 1634 in Loudun) was a French Catholic priest who was burned at the stake after being convicted of witchcraft, following the events of the so-called "Loudun Possessions".

Edward Wightman

Edward Wightman, a Baptist from Burton on Trent, was the last person burned at the stake for heresy in England in Lichfield, Staffordshire on 11 April 1612.
He was the last person to be burned at the stake in England for heresy.

Burning of women in England

burned at the stakeburningburning at the stake
The traditional punishment for women found guilty of treason was to be burned at the stake, where they did not need to be publicly displayed naked, whereas men were hanged, drawn and quartered.
Over a period of several centuries, female convicts were publicly burnt at the stake, sometimes alive, for a range of activities including coining and mariticide.

Hugh Latimer

LatimerBishop LatimerBishop Hugh Latimer
Anglican martyrs John Rogers, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake in 1555.
In 1555 under the Catholic Queen Mary he was burned at the stake, becoming one of the three Oxford Martyrs of Anglicanism.

Treason

high treasontraitortraitors
It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, and many societies have employed it for criminal activities such as treason, heresy and witchcraft.
In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered (men) or burnt at the stake (women), although beheading could be substituted by royal command (usually for royalty and nobility).

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
Mary I ordered hundreds of Protestants burnt at the stake during her reign (1553–58) in what would be known as the "Marian Persecutions" earning her the epithet of "Bloody" Mary.
He was excommunicated and burned at the stake in Constance, Bishopric of Constance in 1415 by secular authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy.

Adam Duff O'Toole

Adam Dubh Ó Tuathail
In 1327 or 1328, Adam Duff O'Toole was burned at the stake in Dublin for heresy after branded Christian scripture a fable and denying the resurrection of Jesus.
Adam Duff O'Toole (Adducc or Adam Dubh Ó Tuathail; died 11 April 1328 ) was an Irishman burned at the stake in Dublin for heresy and blasphemy.

Bridget Cleary

Michael Cleary
In 1895, Bridget Cleary (née Boland), a County Tipperary woman, was burnt by her husband and others, the stated motive for the crime being the belief that the real Bridget had been abducted by fairies with a changeling left in her place.
The gruesome nature of the case — she was either immolated while still alive or set on fire immediately following her death — prompted extensive press coverage.

Lichfield

City of LichfieldLichfield, Staffordshirecentre of the city
Edward Wightman, a Baptist from Burton on Trent, was the last person burned at the stake for heresy in England in Lichfield, Staffordshire on 11 April 1612.
Three people were burned at the stake for heresy under Mary I. The last public burning at the stake in England took place in Lichfield, when Edward Wightman from Burton upon Trent was executed by burning in the Market Place on 11 April 1612 for promoting himself as the divine Paraclete and Saviour of the world.