Debris flows are geological phenomena in which water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form thick, muddy deposits on valley floors.- Debris flow
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Accumulation of sediments that fans outwards from a concentrated source of sediments, such as a narrow canyon emerging from an escarpment.
The flow can take the form of infrequent debris flows or one or more ephemeral or perennial streams.
A lahar (, from ꦮ꧀ꦭꦲꦂ) is a violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.
Landslides, also known as landslips, are several forms of mass wasting that may include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows, and debris flows.
The Vargas tragedy was a natural disaster that occurred in Vargas State, Venezuela on 14–16 December 1999, when torrential rains caused flash floods and debris flows that killed tens of thousands of people, destroyed thousands of homes, and led to the complete collapse of the state's infrastructure.
The Armero tragedy (Tragedia de Armero ) occurred following the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz stratovolcano in Tolima, Colombia, on November 13, 1985.
As pyroclastic flows erupted from the volcano's crater, they melted the mountain's glaciers, sending four enormous lahars (volcanically induced mudflows, landslides, and debris flows) down its slopes at 50 km/h.
Form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.
Mudflows contain a significant proportion of clay, which makes them more fluid than debris flows; thus, they are able to travel farther and across lower slope angles.
Sorting describes the distribution of grain size of sediments, either in unconsolidated deposits or in sedimentary rocks.
The degree of sorting may also indicate the energy, rate, and/or duration of deposition, as well as the transport process (river, debris flow, wind, glacier, etc.) responsible for laying down the sediment.
Most typically an underwater current of usually rapidly moving, sediment-laden water moving down a slope; although current research indicates that water-saturated sediment may be the primary actor in the process.
Within minutes after the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occurred off the coast of Newfoundland, transatlantic telephone cables began breaking sequentially, farther and farther downslope, away from the epicenter. Twelve cables were snapped in a total of 28 places. Exact times and locations were recorded for each break. Investigators suggested that an estimated 60 mile per hour (100 km/h) submarine landslide or turbidity current of water saturated sediments swept 400 miles (600 km) down the continental slope from the earthquake's epicenter, snapping the cables as it passed. Subsequent research of this event have shown that continental slope sediment failures mostly occurred below 650 meter water depth. The slumping that occurred in shallow waters (5–25 meters) passed down slope into turbidity currents that evolved ignitively. The turbidity currents had sustained flow for many hours due to the delayed retrogressive failure and transformation of debris flows into turbidity currents through hydraulic jumps.
A hyperconcentrated flow is a two-phase flowing mixture of water and sediment in a channel which has properties intermediate between fluvial flow and debris flow.
Influential narrower definitions restrict landslides to slumps and translational slides in rock and regolith, not involving fluidisation.
Description: "Debris flow is a very rapid to extremely rapid flow of saturated non-plastic debris in a steep channel" (Hungr et al.,2001)