Decentralization

decentralizeddecentralisationdecentraliseddecentralizedecentralistdecentralisingdecentralismdecentralized structures of political organizationgovernment decentralizationadministrative decentralization
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.wikipedia
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Kirkpatrick Sale

Sale, Kirkpatrick
New Left and libertarian individuals who identified with social, economic, and often political decentralism through the ensuing years included Ralph Borsodi, Wendell Berry, Paul Goodman, Carl Oglesby, Karl Hess, Donald Livingston, Kirkpatrick Sale (author of Human Scale), Murray Bookchin, Dorothy Day, Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Mildred J. Loomis and Bill Kauffman.
He has been described as having a "philosophy unified by decentralism" and as being "a leader of the Neo-Luddites," an "anti-globalization leftist," and "the theoretician for a new secessionist movement."

Murray Bookchin

BookchinBookchin, MurrayCommunalism
New Left and libertarian individuals who identified with social, economic, and often political decentralism through the ensuing years included Ralph Borsodi, Wendell Berry, Paul Goodman, Carl Oglesby, Karl Hess, Donald Livingston, Kirkpatrick Sale (author of Human Scale), Murray Bookchin, Dorothy Day, Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Mildred J. Loomis and Bill Kauffman.
Bookchin was a prominent anti-capitalist and advocate of society's decentralisation along ecological and democratic lines.

Cornell University

CornellCornell University PressCornell Cooperative Extension
Cornell University's project on Restructuring Local Government states that decentralization refers to the "global trend" of devolving responsibilities to regional or local governments.
Cornell is decentralized, with its colleges and schools exercising wide autonomy.

Public administration

administrationpublic officepublic affairs
Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics, money and technology.
For a field built on concepts (accountability, governance, decentralization and clientele), these concepts are often ill-defined and typologies often ignore certain aspects of these concepts.

Centre Party (Finland)

Centre PartyAgrarian LeagueCentre
In Finland, the Centre Party explicitly supports decentralization.
Founded in 1906 as the Agrarian League, the party represented rural communities and supported decentralisation of political power from Helsinki.

Devolution

devolveddevolvedevolved government
Devolution transfers responsibility for decision-making, finance and implementation of certain public functions to the sub-national level, such as a regional, local, or state government.
It is a form of administrative decentralization.

Donald Livingston

Abbeville InstituteDonald W. Livingston
New Left and libertarian individuals who identified with social, economic, and often political decentralism through the ensuing years included Ralph Borsodi, Wendell Berry, Paul Goodman, Carl Oglesby, Karl Hess, Donald Livingston, Kirkpatrick Sale (author of Human Scale), Murray Bookchin, Dorothy Day, Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Mildred J. Loomis and Bill Kauffman.
His political philosophy is informed by an Aristotelian conception of civilization and embodies the decentralizing themes echoed by European intellectuals such as Althusius, David Hume and Lord Acton; and Americans such as Thomas Jefferson, Spencer Roane, Abel Parker Upshur, Robert Hayne and John C. Calhoun.

Libertarian socialism

libertarian socialistlibertarianlibertarian socialists
Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that promote a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic society without private property in the means of production.
Libertarian socialism is close to and overlaps with left-libertarianism, and criticizes wage labour relationships within the workplace, instead emphasizing workers' self-management of the workplace and decentralized structures of political organization.

Green politics

greengreen movementGreens
In 1983, "Decentralization" was identified as one of the "Ten Key Values" of the Green Movement in the United States.
Decentralization

Fiscal federalism

fiscal federalistfiscal federalistsfiscal transfer
While this process usually is called fiscal federalism it may be relevant to unitary, federal and confederal governments.
As a subfield of public economics, fiscal federalism is concerned with "understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government" (Oates, 1999).

Anarchism

anarchistanarchistsanarchistic
Ideas of liberty and decentralization were carried to their logical conclusions during the 19th and 20th centuries by anti-state political activists calling themselves "anarchists", "libertarians," and even decentralists. Political philosophies commonly described as libertarian socialist include most varieties of anarchism (especially anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism, and mutualism ) as well as autonomism, communalism, participism, libertarian Marxist philosophies such as council communism and Luxemburgism, and some versions of "utopian socialism" and individualist anarchism.
It generally views patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy that should be replaced by decentralised free association.

Scottish National Party

SNP SNP Scottish National
This phenomenon famously occurred in 1999, when the United Kingdom's Labour Party appealed to Scottish constituents by creating a semi-autonomous Scottish Parliament in order to neutralize the threat from the increasingly popular Scottish National Party at the national level.
From the mid-1940s onwards, SNP policy was radical and redistributionist in relation to land and in favour of ‘the diffusion of economic power’, including the decentralisation of industries such as coal to include the involvement of local authorities and regional planning bodies to control industrial structure and development.

People's Planning in Kerala

Keralapeople's planningPeople's Planning Campaign
An example of this method in practice is in Kerala, India which started in 1996 as, The People's Planning in Kerala.
Decentralization is, basically, the process of devolving the functions and resources of the State from the centre to the elected governments at the lower levels so as to facilitate greater direct participation by the citizens in governance.

Leopold Kohr

Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations – known for its statement “Whenever something is wrong, something is too big” – was a major influence on E.F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful:Economics As If People Mattered .
Kohr was an important inspiration to the Green, bioregional, Fourth World, decentralist, and anarchist movements, Kohr contributed often to John Papworth's `Journal for the Fourth World', Resurgence.

Subsidiarity

principle of subsidiaritysubsidiarity principleconcept of subsidiarity
In decentralization the principle of subsidiarity is often invoked.
Decentralization

Decentralised system

decentralizeddecentralized systemdecentralised
The United Nations Development Programme report applies to the topic of decentralization "a whole systems perspective, including levels, spheres, sectors and functions and seeing the community level as the entry point at which holistic definitions of development goals are most likely to emerge from the people themselves and where it is most practical to support them. It involves seeing multi-level frameworks and continuous, synergistic processes of interaction and iteration of cycles as critical for achieving wholeness in a decentralized system and for sustaining its development.”
Decentralization

Appropriate technology

appropriate technologiesintermediate technologytechnology critics
Concepts of decentralization of technology are used throughout all types of technology, including especially information technology and appropriate technology.
Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.

Anarchism in Spain

anarchistanarchistsSpanish anarchist
Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war, Hitler, Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Second Spanish Republic itself.
Many anarchists within the group felt that this was contrary to their belief in decentralization.

ZeroNet

Examples of projects that attempt to contribute to the redecentralization of the Internet include ArkOS, Diaspora, FreedomBox, Namecoin, SAFE Network, twtxt and ZeroNet as well as advocacy group Redecentralize.org, which provides support for projects that aim to make the Web less centralized.
ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users, created by Tamas Kocsis in 2015.

E. F. Schumacher

E.F. SchumacherErnst SchumacherSchumacher
Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations – known for its statement “Whenever something is wrong, something is too big” – was a major influence on E.F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful:Economics As If People Mattered .
Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (19 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was a German statistician and economist who is best known for his proposals for human-scale, decentralised and appropriate technologies.

Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
Nakamoto consensus), thus enabling the uniqueness of its intrinsic digital asset and utility as a scarce cryptocurrency.
Cryptocurrencies use decentralized control as opposed to centralized digital currency and central banking systems.

Blockchain

Blockchainsblockchain technologyblock
Blockchain based networks are designed to support decentralization by way of a cryptographic distributed triple-entry accounting ledger, typically with “layers” where each layer is defined by an interoperable open protocol on top of which network participants can transact and build products or services without requiring permission from central authorities.
Decentralized consensus has therefore been claimed with a blockchain.

Libertarian Marxism

libertarian MarxistLibertarian Marxistsanti-authoritarian Marxism
Political philosophies commonly described as libertarian socialist include most varieties of anarchism (especially anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism, and mutualism ) as well as autonomism, communalism, participism, libertarian Marxist philosophies such as council communism and Luxemburgism, and some versions of "utopian socialism" and individualist anarchism.
The highly decentralized and democratic nature of the proposed De Leonist government is in contrast to the democratic centralism of Marxism–Leninism and what they see as the dictatorial nature of the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China and other "communist" states.

Jane Jacobs

Jane Jacobs Prizemoral syndromeGuardian syndrome
Author and activist Jane Jacobs's influential 1961 book The Death and Life of American Cities criticized large-scale redevelopment projects which were part of government-planned decentralization of population and businesses to suburbs.
She has been characterized as a major influence on decentralist and radical centrist thought.

Wikipedia

wikipedia.orgparody of WikipediaBeersheba University
Wikipedia has been described as decentralized.
In a 2017 opinion piece for Wired, Hossein Derakhshan describes Wikipedia as "one of the last remaining pillars of the open and decentralized web" and contrasted its existence as a text-based source of knowledge with social media and social networking services, the latter having "since colonized the web for television's values."