Decision-making

decision makingdecisionsdecisiondecision makerdecision-making processdecision processdecision-makersmaking decisionsmake decisionsmedical decision making
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.wikipedia
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Choice

choiceschooseelective
Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action.
Choice involves decision making.

Multiple-criteria decision analysis

multi-criteria decision analysismulti-criteria decision makingMCDA
Solving such problems is the focus of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA).
Multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) or multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a sub-discipline of operations research that explicitly evaluates multiple conflicting criteria in decision making (both in daily life and in settings such as business, government and medicine).

Decision-making paradox

decision making paradox
This leads to the formulation of a decision-making paradox.
The decision-making paradox relates to decision-making and the quest for determining reliable decision-making methods.

Analysis paralysis

paralysis by analysisoverthinkingover-thinking to the point of confusion
Analysis paralysis is the state of over-analyzing (or over-thinking) a situation so that a decision or action is never taken, in effect paralyzing the outcome.
Analysis paralysis (or paralysis by analysis) describes an individual or group process when overanalyzing or overthinking a situation can cause forward motion or decision-making to become "paralyzed", meaning that no solution or course of action is decided upon.

Preference

preferencespenchantpreferential
Decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker.
In psychology, preferences refer to an individual's attitude towards a set of objects, typically reflected in an explicit decision-making process (Lichtenstein & Slovic, 2006).

Naturalistic decision-making

naturalistic decision makingDecision Making
But naturalistic decision-making research shows that in situations with higher time pressure, higher stakes, or increased ambiguities, experts may use intuitive decision-making rather than structured approaches.
The naturalistic decision making (NDM) framework emerged as a means of studying how people make decisions and perform cognitively complex functions in demanding, real-world situations.

Recognition primed decision

Recognition-Primed Decision-makingrecognizing patterns and applying appropriate responses
They may follow a recognition primed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing alternatives.
Recognition-primed decision (RPD) is a model of how people make quick, effective decisions when faced with complex situations.

Orbitofrontal cortex

orbitofrontalorbitofrontal cortex (OFC)medial orbitofrontal cortex
Several brain structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex and the overlapping ventromedial prefrontal cortex are believed to be involved in decision-making processes.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes of the brain which is involved in the cognitive process of decision-making.

Volition (psychology)

volitionvolitionalwill
A neuroimaging study found distinctive patterns of neural activation in these regions depending on whether decisions were made on the basis of perceived personal volition or following directions from someone else.
Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action.

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

ventromedialventromedial PFCVMPFC
Several brain structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex and the overlapping ventromedial prefrontal cortex are believed to be involved in decision-making processes.
It also plays a role in the inhibition of emotional responses, and in the process of decision making and self control.

Voting

votevotervoters
Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.

Group decision-making

group decision makingcollective decision-makingGroup decisions
Decision-making techniques can be separated into two broad categories: group decision-making techniques and individual decision-making techniques.
The decision is then no longer attributable to any single individual who is a member of the group.

Anterior cingulate cortex

anterior cingulateanterior cingulate gyrusanterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
Several brain structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex and the overlapping ventromedial prefrontal cortex are believed to be involved in decision-making processes.
It is also involved in certain higher-level functions, such as attention allocation, reward anticipation, decision-making, ethics and morality, impulse control (e.g. performance monitoring and error detection), and emotion.

Quadratic voting

Quadratic voting is a collective decision-making procedure where individuals allocate votes to express their preferences.

Decision intelligence

Decision engineering
Its application provides a framework for best practices in organizational decision-making and processes for applying machine learning at scale.

Participative decision-making

participativeVigilant Interaction Theory
Participative decision-making (PDM) is the extent to which employers allow or encourage employees to share or participate in organizational decision-making (Probst, 2005).

Two-alternative forced choice

2AFCforcedforced-choice
A common laboratory paradigm for studying neural decision-making is the two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC), in which a subject has to choose between two alternatives within a certain time.
A 2AFC task has also been designed to test decision making and the interaction of reward and probability learning in monkeys.

Flipism

flip of a coinflip of his signature coinflipping coins
Flipism, sometimes written as "Flippism," is a pseudophilosophy under which all decisions are made by flipping a coin.

Decision analysis

analysisdecision analysesdecision analysts
Decision analysis (DA) is the discipline comprising the philosophy, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner.

Decision support system

decision supportdecision support systemsdecision engine
A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.

Somatic marker hypothesis

Somaticsomatic markersSomatic markers hypothesis
The somatic marker hypothesis is a neurobiological theory of how decisions are made in the face of uncertain outcome.
When individuals make decisions, they must assess the incentive value of the choices available to them, using cognitive and emotional processes.

Decisional balance sheet

Decisional balancePros and cons
In papers from 1959 onwards, Irving Janis and Leon Mann coined the phrase decisional balance sheet and used the concept as a way of looking at decision-making.

Intuition

intuitiveintuitivelyIntuition (knowledge)
But naturalistic decision-making research shows that in situations with higher time pressure, higher stakes, or increased ambiguities, experts may use intuitive decision-making rather than structured approaches.
In more-recent psychology, intuition can encompass the ability to know valid solutions to problems and decision making.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
In a 1772 letter to Joseph Priestley, Franklin lays out the earliest known description of the Pro & Con list, a common decision-making technique, now sometimes called a decisional balance sheet:

List of cognitive biases

cognitive biasesList of biases in judgment and decision makingbiases
Here is a list of commonly debated biases in judgment and decision-making:
Some are effects of information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments.