Decius

DecianDecius TraianEmperor DeciusTrajan DeciusDecian PersecutionGaius Messius Quintus Trajanus DeciusTraianus DeciusChristian persecutionsEmperor Trajanus DeciusGaius Messius Quintus Decius
Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus; c. 200June 251), also known as Trajan Decius, was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.wikipedia
311 Related Articles

Decian persecution

persecutionDecianDecius edict
During his reign, he attempted to strengthen the Roman state and its religion, leading to the Decian persecution where a number of prominent Christians (including Pope Fabian) were put to death.
The Decian persecution resulted from an edict issued in 250 by the Emperor Decius ordering everyone in the Roman Empire (except for Jews, who were exempted) to perform a sacrifice to the Roman gods and the well-being of the Emperor.

Herennius Etruscus

HerenniusQ. Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius CaesarQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius C. f. Trajanus Decius
In the last year of his reign, Decius co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus, until they were both killed by the Goths in the Battle of Abritus.
undefined 227–June 251), was Roman emperor in 251, ruling jointly with his father Decius.

Battle of Verona (249)

Battle of VeronaVerona
In 249, he defeated and killed Philip near Verona and was recognized as emperor by the Senate afterwards.
The Battle of Verona was fought between the Roman general and usurper Decius, and Roman Emperor Philip the Arab in 249.

Sremska Mitrovica

MitrovicaHrvatska MitrovicaSzávaszentdemeter
Decius, who was born at Budalia, near Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior (now Martinci and Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum.
Likewise, ten Roman emperors were born in or near this city, Emperors Herennius Etruscus (251), Hostilian (251), Decius Traian (249-251), Claudius Gothicus (268-270), Quintillus (270), Aurelian (270-275), Probus (276-282), Maximian (285-310), Constantius II (337-361) and Gratian (367-383).

Philip the Arab

PhilipMarcus Julius PhilippusPhilip I
A distinguished politician during the reign of Philippus Arabus, Decius was proclaimed emperor by his troops after successfully putting down a rebellion in Moesia.
Philip was betrayed and killed at the Battle of Verona in September 249 following a rebellion led by his successor, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius.

Sirmium

SirmianSrem
Decius, who was born at Budalia, near Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior (now Martinci and Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum.
Ten Roman emperors were born in this city or in its surroundings: Herennius Etruscus (251), Hostilian (251), Decius (249–51), Claudius II (268-270), Quintillus (270), Aurelian (270–75), Probus (276–82), Maximian (285–310), Constantius II (337–61), and Gratian (367–83).

Martinci

Decius, who was born at Budalia, near Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior (now Martinci and Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum.
During Roman rule, the village was known as Budalia and was a place of birth of Roman emperor Traianus Decius (249-251).

Pope Fabian

FabianSaint Fabiananti-Papal
During his reign, he attempted to strengthen the Roman state and its religion, leading to the Decian persecution where a number of prominent Christians (including Pope Fabian) were put to death.
With the advent of Emperor Decius, the Roman government's tolerant policy toward Christianity temporarily ended.

Baths of Decius

During his reign, he proceeded with several building projects in Rome, "including the Thermae Decianae or Baths of Decius on the Aventine", which was completed in 252 and survived through to the 16th century; Decius also repaired the Colosseum, which had been damaged by lightning strikes.
The Baths of Decius (Latin: thermae Decianae) were a thermae (baths) complex built on the Aventine Hill by the emperor Decius in 249 or 252.

Goths

GothicgothDeewan Lal Chand
In the last year of his reign, Decius co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus, until they were both killed by the Goths in the Battle of Abritus.
Several such raids followed in subsequent decades, in particular the Battle of Abrittus in 251, led by Cniva, in which the Roman Emperor Decius was killed.

Valerian (emperor)

ValerianEmperor ValerianValerianus
The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian (the future emperor).
In 251 AD, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate, though he declined to accept the post.

Trajan

Emperor TrajanMarcus Ulpius TraianusTraianus
The Senate then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus in reference to the emperor Trajan.
These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan.

Roman censor

censorcensorscensorship
Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor.
In the reign of Decius, we find the elder Valerian nominated to the censorship, but Valerian was never actually elected censor.

Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum

defeatedsurprised
The Goths under King Cniva were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis on the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans, but then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë (modern Stara Zagora), sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops.
The Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum was fought between the Roman army of Emperor Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus, and the Gothic army of King Cniva, in 250 CE.

Cyprian

Saint CyprianSt. CyprianCyprian of Carthage
This outbreak is referred to as the "Plague of Cyprian" (Cyprian was the bishop of Carthage, where both the plague and the persecution of Christians were especially severe).
Early in 250 the "Decian persecution" began.

Cniva

Kniva
The Goths under King Cniva were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis on the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans, but then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë (modern Stara Zagora), sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops.
He successfully captured the city of Philippopolis (Plovdiv in Bulgaria) in 250 and killed Emperor Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus at the Battle of Abritus as he was attempting to leave the Empire in 251.

Pacatianus

Marinus PacatianusTiberius Claudius Pacatianus
By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus and his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism.
According to Zosimus, the revolts of Pacatianus in Moesia (he probably controlled Viminacium) and Iotapianus in Syria prompted Philip to make an offer to the Roman Senate to step down, but the senator Decius (who was sent by Philip to deal with the rebellion), correctly predicted that Pacatianus would soon be killed by his own men before his own arrival.

Hostilian

Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius C. f. Quintus
Hostilian was born to Decius and Herennia Etruscilla at an unknown date and elevated to Caesar in May 251 by Decius, the same month as his older brother, Herennius Etruscus, was raised to co-emperor.

Trebonianus Gallus

GallusC. Vibius Trebonianus GallusCaius Trebonianus Gallus
In the meantime, Decius had returned with his re-organized army, accompanied by his son Herennius Etruscus and the general Trebonianus Gallus, intending to defeat the invaders and recover the booty.
He was suffect consul and in 250 was made governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of Emperor Decius in him.

Battle of Abritus

Abrittusin battle
In the last year of his reign, Decius co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus, until they were both killed by the Goths in the Battle of Abritus. The final engagement, the battle of Abritus, in which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abritus or Forum Terebronii (modern Razgrad).
The Roman army of three legions was soundly defeated, and Roman emperors Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus were both killed in battle.

Razgrad

Istanbul, TurkeyRazgrad, Razgrad Province
The final engagement, the battle of Abritus, in which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abritus or Forum Terebronii (modern Razgrad).
In 251, the town was the site of the Battle of Abrittus, during which the Goths defeated a Roman army under the emperors Trajan Decius and Herennius Etruscus.

Titus Julius Priscus

The governor of Thrace, Titus Julius Priscus, declared himself Emperor under Gothic protection in opposition to Decius but Priscus's challenge was rendered moot when he was killed soon afterwards.
He was the governor of Thrace, and proclaimed himself Emperor in opposition to Emperor Decius at Philippopolis towards the end of 251, probably with Gothic collusion following their successful siege at the Battle of Philippopolis.

Battle of Beroe

battleBeroeBeroë
The Goths under King Cniva were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis on the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans, but then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë (modern Stara Zagora), sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops.
After the Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum where the Goths were defeated, emperor Decius reached Beroe but his army was exhausted and he had to rest his men and horses but Cniva and his Goths attacked him and the Roman army was heavily defeated.

Siege of Philippopolis (250)

Battle of Philippopolisattack ''Philippopolisbesiege
The Goths then moved to attack Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv), which fell into their hands.
His army attacked Novae and Nicopolis ad Istrum unsuccessfully before defeating the army of Emperor Decius at Augusta Traiana and moving on to Philippopolis.

Herennia Etruscilla

Annia Cupressenia Herennia Etruscilla
Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla was an Augusta and later regent of the Roman Empire, married to Emperor Decius, and mother of Emperors Herennius Etruscus and Hostilian.