Deep South

SouthLower SouthSouthernAmerican Deep SouthDixieSoutheasternSouthern United StatesThe Deep SouthAmerican Deep-SouthAmerican Southern
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.wikipedia
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Southern United States

SouthSouthernAmerican South
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
The Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner.

Slavery in the United States

slaveryslavesslave
Historically, it was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period.
The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for the labor of enslaved people, and the Southern states continued as slave societies.

South Carolina

SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South.

Louisiana

LAState of LouisianaLouisiana, USA
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.

Upland South

Upper SouthHistory of the Upland Southmore northern slave states
Presidential elections in which the Deep South diverged noticeably from the Upper South occurred in 1928, 1948, 1964, 1968, and, to a lesser extent, in 1952, 1956, 1992, and 2008.
The terms Upland South and Upper South refer to the northern section of the Southern United States, in contrast to the Lower South or Deep South.

Texas

TXTexanState of Texas
Notable extremes range from East Texas which is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.

Mississippi

MSState of MississippiGeography of Mississippi
As in the rest of the Deep South, thunderstorms are common in Mississippi, especially in the southern part of the state.

Plantation complexes in the Southern United States

plantation housemansionmain house
Historically, it was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period.
Mostly built by Louisiana Creole people, but occasionally found in other parts of the Deep South formerly under the dominion of New France, they were structures that housed the adolescent or unmarried sons of plantation owners.

Black Belt (U.S. region)

Black BeltBlack Belt RegionBlack Belt in the Southeastern region of the United States
, the majority of African-descended Americans in the South live in the Black Belt counties.
During the first half of the 19th Century, as many as one million enslaved Africans were transported through sales in the domestic slave trade to the Deep South in a forced migration to work as laborers for the region's cotton plantations.

Birmingham, Alabama

BirminghamBirmingham, ALPratt City
Birmingham serves as an important regional hub and is associated with the Deep South, Piedmont, and Appalachian regions of the nation.

East Texas

Deep East Texaseastern TexasTexas
Later, the general definition expanded to include all of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and often taking in bordering areas of East Texas and North Florida.
East Texas is often considered the westernmost extension of the Deep South.

Florida

FLState of FloridaFloridian
This is characteristic of its voter base throughout the Deep South.

Birmingham metropolitan area, Alabama

Greater BirminghamBirmingham metropolitan areaBirmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Area
Birmingham is part of the Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion containing an estimated 19 million people, while many residents also consider themselves part of the Deep South.

Solid South

solidly Democratic Southwas a givena Democratic bastion
In politics the region became known for decades as the "Solid South": while this disenfranchisement was enforced, all of the states in this region were one-party states dominated by white Southern Democrats.
In the Deep South (South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas), Democratic dominance was overwhelming, with 80%–90% of the vote, and only a tiny number of Republican state legislators or local officials.

Southern Democrats

Southern DemocratDemocraticSouthern Democratic
In politics the region became known for decades as the "Solid South": while this disenfranchisement was enforced, all of the states in this region were one-party states dominated by white Southern Democrats.
The passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a significant event in converting the Deep South to the Republican Party; in that year most Senatorial Republicans supported the Act (most of the opposition came from Southern Democrats), but the Republican Party nominated for the Presidency Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater, who had opposed it.

New Orleans

New Orleans, LouisianaNew Orleans, LAOrleans Parish
While not commercially successful outside of the Deep South, bounce music was immensely popular in poorer neighborhoods throughout the 1990s.

Civil rights movement

American Civil Rights Movementcivil rightscivil rights era
In the post-World War II era, Democratic Party presidents and national politicians began to support desegregation and other elements of the Civil Rights Movement, from President Harry S. Truman's desegregating the military, to John F. Kennedy's support for non-violent protests.
During the first and subsequent Freedom Rides, activists travelled through the Deep South to integrate seating patterns on buses and desegregate bus terminals, including restrooms and water fountains.

1968 United States presidential election

19681968 presidential election1968 election
Presidential elections in which the Deep South diverged noticeably from the Upper South occurred in 1928, 1948, 1964, 1968, and, to a lesser extent, in 1952, 1956, 1992, and 2008.
Wallace won five states in the Deep South and ran well in some ethnic enclave industrial districts in the North; he is the most recent third party candidate to win a state.

1964 United States presidential election

19641964 presidential election1964 election
Presidential elections in which the Deep South diverged noticeably from the Upper South occurred in 1928, 1948, 1964, 1968, and, to a lesser extent, in 1952, 1956, 1992, and 2008. Beginning with the Goldwater–Johnson election of 1964, a significant contingent of white conservative voters in the Deep South stopped supporting national Democratic Party candidates and switched to Republicans.
Goldwater won his home state and swept the states of the Deep South, most of which had not voted for a Republican presidential candidate since the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Voting Rights Act1965 Voting Rights ActNational Voting Rights Act of 1965
These efforts culminated in Lyndon B. Johnson's important work in gaining Congressional approval for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965.
This formula reached few jurisdictions outside the Deep South.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.

John F. Kennedy

KennedyPresident KennedyJohn Kennedy
In the post-World War II era, Democratic Party presidents and national politicians began to support desegregation and other elements of the Civil Rights Movement, from President Harry S. Truman's desegregating the military, to John F. Kennedy's support for non-violent protests.
Jim Crow segregation was the established law in the Deep South.

1928 United States presidential election

19281928 presidential election1928 election
Presidential elections in which the Deep South diverged noticeably from the Upper South occurred in 1928, 1948, 1964, 1968, and, to a lesser extent, in 1952, 1956, 1992, and 2008.
Smith won the electoral votes of only the Deep Southern States of the Democratic Solid South (plus Robinson's home state of Arkansas) and the New England states of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, which had a large proportion of Catholic voters.

New Deal coalition

New DealNew Deal Democratscoalition
During the Great Depression and the administration of Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, some New Deal measures were promoted as intending to aid African Americans across the country and in the poor rural South, as well as poor whites.
The white Southerners believed the support that northern Democrats gave to the Civil Rights Movement to be a direct political assault on their interests, which opened the way to protest votes for Barry Goldwater, who, in 1964, was the first Republican to carry the Deep South.