Deep vein thrombosis

deep venous thrombosisdeep-vein thrombosisDVTdeep vein thrombosesTraveller's thrombosisblood clot in her legblood clot in the legBlood clotting in the veins of the legsclotdeep vain thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.wikipedia
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Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary embolipulmonary emboluspulmonary thrombosis
Complications may include pulmonary embolism, as a result of detachment of a clot which travels to the lungs, and post-thrombotic syndrome.
Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg may also be present, such as a red, warm, swollen, and painful leg.

Thrombophilia

hypercoagulabilityhypercoagulable statehypercoagulable
The underlying mechanism typically involves some combination of decreased blood flow rate, increased tendency to clot, and injury to the blood vessel wall.
Such abnormalities can be identified in 50% of people who have an episode of thrombosis (such as deep vein thrombosis in the leg) that was not provoked by other causes.

Venous thrombosis

venous thromboembolismthromboembolismthromboembolic disease
Together, DVT and pulmonary embolism are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE).
A common type of venous thrombosis is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg.

Warfarin

CoumadinAthrombinAthrombin-K
Typical medications include low-molecular-weight heparin, warfarin, or a direct oral anticoagulant.
It is commonly used to treat blood clots such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and to prevent stroke in people who have atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease or artificial heart valves.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Risk factors include recent surgery, cancer, trauma, lack of movement, obesity, smoking, hormonal birth control, pregnancy and the period following birth, antiphospholipid syndrome, and certain genetic conditions.

Post-thrombotic syndrome

Postphlebitic syndromelong-term swelling and heavinesspost thrombotic syndrome
Complications may include pulmonary embolism, as a result of detachment of a clot which travels to the lungs, and post-thrombotic syndrome.
Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), also called postphlebitic syndrome and venous stress disorder is a medical condition that may occur as a long-term complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Antiphospholipid syndrome

antiphospholipid antibody syndromeantiphospholipid antibodiesantiphospholipid antibody
Risk factors include recent surgery, cancer, trauma, lack of movement, obesity, smoking, hormonal birth control, pregnancy and the period following birth, antiphospholipid syndrome, and certain genetic conditions.
In APS patients, the most common venous event is deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities, and the most common arterial event is stroke.

Low molecular weight heparin

low-molecular weight heparinlow-molecular-weight heparinLMWH
Typical medications include low-molecular-weight heparin, warfarin, or a direct oral anticoagulant.
They are used in the prevention of blood clots and treatment of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and in the treatment of myocardial infarction.

Baker's cyst

popliteal cystBakerBaker cyst
In most suspected cases, DVT is ruled out after evaluation, and symptoms are more often due to other causes, such as cellulitis, Baker's cyst, musculoskeletal injury, or lymphedema.
Rarely complications such as deep vein thrombosis, peripheral neuropathy, ischemia, or compartment syndrome may occur.

Deep vein

deepdeep veinsdeep vessels
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Occlusion of a deep vein by thrombosis is called deep vein thrombosis.

Phlegmasia alba dolens

white leg
Phlegmasia alba dolens and phlegmasia cerulea dolens occur when a DVT is very large and causes significant obstruction of the veins (complete or near-complete occlusion).
Phlegmasia alba dolens (also colloquially known as milk leg or white leg) is part of a spectrum of diseases related to deep vein thrombosis.

Compression stockings

compression socksCompression stockingGraduated compression stockings
Preventive efforts following surgery may include early and frequent walking, calf exercises, aspirin, anticoagulants, graduated compression stockings, or intermittent pneumatic compression.
Deep vein thrombosis occurs when blood flow decreases (especially in the lower extremities), causing blood to pool in the legs and leading to blood clot (thrombus) formation.

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

Phlegmasia alba dolens and phlegmasia cerulea dolens occur when a DVT is very large and causes significant obstruction of the veins (complete or near-complete occlusion).
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (literally: painful blue edema) is an uncommon severe form of deep venous thrombosis which results from extensive thrombotic occlusion (blockage by a thrombus) of the major and the collateral veins of an extremity.

Thrombus

blood clotblood clotsclot
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Some of the conditions which increase the risk of blood clots developing include atrial fibrillation (a form of cardiac arrhythmia), heart valve replacement, a recent heart attack (also known as a myocardial infarction), extended periods of inactivity (see deep venous thrombosis), and genetic or disease-related deficiencies in the blood's clotting abilities.

Intermittent pneumatic compression

sequential compression devicecyclical pneumatic calf compressionintermittent pneumatic compression devices
Preventive efforts following surgery may include early and frequent walking, calf exercises, aspirin, anticoagulants, graduated compression stockings, or intermittent pneumatic compression.
Intermittent pneumatic compression is a therapeutic technique used in medical devices that include an air pump and inflatable auxiliary sleeves, gloves or boots in a system designed to improve venous circulation in the limbs of patients who suffer edema or the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

Venous stasis

venous congestiondecreased blood flow ratepoor venous return
The underlying mechanism typically involves some combination of decreased blood flow rate, increased tendency to clot, and injury to the blood vessel wall.
Venous stasis is a risk factor for forming blood clots in veins (venous thrombosis), as with the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT).

Lymphedema

lymphoedemaelephantiasiscongenital lymphedema
In most suspected cases, DVT is ruled out after evaluation, and symptoms are more often due to other causes, such as cellulitis, Baker's cyst, musculoskeletal injury, or lymphedema.
Some cases of lower-limb lymphedema have been associated with the use of tamoxifen, due to the blood clots and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that can be associated with this medication.

Prothrombin G20210A

prothrombin mutation prothrombin G20210A mutationF2 20210A
Factor V Leiden, which makes factor V resistant to inactivation by activated protein C, and the genetic variant prothrombin G20210A, which causes increased prothrombin levels, are predominantly expressed in Caucasians.
Prothrombin G20210A is a genetic condition that increases the risk of blood clots including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Factor V Leiden

F5 1691AFactor V Leiden mutationFactor V Leiden thrombophilia
Factor V Leiden, which makes factor V resistant to inactivation by activated protein C, and the genetic variant prothrombin G20210A, which causes increased prothrombin levels, are predominantly expressed in Caucasians. Genetic factors include deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S, and factor V Leiden mutation.
The excessive clotting that occurs in this disorder is almost always restricted to the veins, where the clotting may cause a deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

D-dimer

D dimerD-dimer titrationquantitative D-dimer
A D-dimer test may also be used to assist with excluding the diagnosis or to signal a need for further testing.
D-dimer testing is of clinical use when there is a suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Postpartum period

postpartumpostnatalpuerperium
Risk factors include recent surgery, cancer, trauma, lack of movement, obesity, smoking, hormonal birth control, pregnancy and the period following birth, antiphospholipid syndrome, and certain genetic conditions. Pregnancy causes blood to favor clotting, and in the postpartum, placental tearing releases substances that favor clotting.
In the first few days following childbirth, the risk of DVT is relatively high as hypercoagulability increases during pregnancy and is maximal in the postpartum period, particularly for women with C-section with reduced mobility.

Hypercoagulability in pregnancy

Pregnancy-induced hypercoagulabilityblood clotting in pregnancyduring pregnancy
Pregnancy causes blood to favor clotting, and in the postpartum, placental tearing releases substances that favor clotting.
Pregnancy in itself causes approximately a five-fold increased risk of deep venous thrombosis.

Hormone replacement therapy

menopausal hormone therapyhormone therapyestrogen replacement therapy
Oral contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy increase the risk through a variety of mechanisms, including altered blood coagulation protein levels and reduced fibrinolysis.
Both therapies had an association with venous clots and pulmonary embolism.

Pregnancy

pregnantfirst trimesterpregnant women
Risk factors include recent surgery, cancer, trauma, lack of movement, obesity, smoking, hormonal birth control, pregnancy and the period following birth, antiphospholipid syndrome, and certain genetic conditions.
During flights, the risk of deep vein thrombosis is decreased by getting up and walking occasionally, as well as by avoiding dehydration.

Cellulitis

pelvic cellulitisAnaerobic cellulitisbacterial skin infection
In most suspected cases, DVT is ruled out after evaluation, and symptoms are more often due to other causes, such as cellulitis, Baker's cyst, musculoskeletal injury, or lymphedema.
Cellulitis in the lower leg is characterized by signs and symptoms similar to those of a deep vein thrombosis, such as warmth, pain, and swelling (inflammation).