Defecation

defecatedefecatingbowel movementbowel movementsdefecateddefecatesegestionevacuationbodily functionsdefecatory
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.wikipedia
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Human feces

stoolfecesstools
Humans expel feces with a frequency varying from a few times daily to a few times weekly.
It is discharged through the anus during a process called defecation.

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Waste material is eliminated from the rectum during defecation.

Large intestine

coloncolorectallarge bowel
Waves of muscular contraction (known as peristalsis) in the walls of the colon move fecal matter through the digestive tract towards the rectum.
Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation.

Open defecation

defecate in the openOpen Defecation Freedefecating in the open
Open defecation, the practice of defecating outside without using a toilet of any kind, is still widespread in some developing countries, for example in India.
Open defecation (also used in the opposite meaning as open defecation free) is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.

Toilet

toiletslavatorylavatories
Open defecation, the practice of defecating outside without using a toilet of any kind, is still widespread in some developing countries, for example in India.
In other words: "Toilets are sanitation facilities at the user interface that allow the safe and convenient urination and defecation".

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
If defecation is delayed for a prolonged period the fecal matter may harden, resulting in constipation. Once trained, loss of control, called fecal incontinence, may be caused by physical injury, nerve injury, prior surgeries (such as an episiotomy), constipation, diarrhea, loss of storage capacity in the rectum, intense fright, inflammatory bowel disease, psychological or neurological factors, childbirth, or death.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
If defecation occurs too fast, before excess liquid is absorbed, diarrhea may occur. Once trained, loss of control, called fecal incontinence, may be caused by physical injury, nerve injury, prior surgeries (such as an episiotomy), constipation, diarrhea, loss of storage capacity in the rectum, intense fright, inflammatory bowel disease, psychological or neurological factors, childbirth, or death.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day.

Anus

analperianalanal opening
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus. The anus and buttocks may be cleansed after defecation with toilet paper, similar paper products, or other absorbent material.
Female placental mammals have completely separate orifices for defecation, urination, and reproduction; males have one opening for defecation and another for both urination and reproduction, although the channels flowing to that orifice are almost completely separate.

Rectum

rectalrectallyrectal ampulla
Waves of muscular contraction (known as peristalsis) in the walls of the colon move fecal matter through the digestive tract towards the rectum. Once trained, loss of control, called fecal incontinence, may be caused by physical injury, nerve injury, prior surgeries (such as an episiotomy), constipation, diarrhea, loss of storage capacity in the rectum, intense fright, inflammatory bowel disease, psychological or neurological factors, childbirth, or death.
As the rectal walls expand due to the materials filling it from within, stretch receptors from the nervous system located in the rectal walls stimulate the desire to pass feces, a process called defecation.

Fecal incontinence

incontinenceFecal leakagefaecal incontinence
Once trained, loss of control, called fecal incontinence, may be caused by physical injury, nerve injury, prior surgeries (such as an episiotomy), constipation, diarrhea, loss of storage capacity in the rectum, intense fright, inflammatory bowel disease, psychological or neurological factors, childbirth, or death.
Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.

Toilet training

toilet trainedpotty trainpotty training
Young children learn voluntary control through the process of toilet training.
Toilet training (also potty training or toilet learning) is the process of training someone, particularly a young child or infant, to use the toilet for urination and defecation.

Urination

urinateurinatingmicturition
This explains why defecation is frequently accompanied by urination.
Micturition is fundamentally a spinobulbospinal reflex facilitated and inhibited by higher brain centers such as the pontine micturition center and, like defecation, subject to voluntary facilitation and inhibition.

External anal sphincter

anal sphincterSphincter ani externus muscleSphincter ani externus
This urge to defecate arises from the reflex contraction of rectal muscles, relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, and an initial contraction of the skeletal muscle of the external anal sphincter.
(2) It can be put into a condition of greater contraction under the influence of the will, so as more firmly to occlude the anal aperture, in expiratory efforts unconnected with defecation.

Anal hygiene

anal cleansingwashing with wateranus must be washed with water
The anus and buttocks may be cleansed after defecation with toilet paper, similar paper products, or other absorbent material.
Anal hygiene, or anal cleansing, refers to hygienic practices that are performed on a person's anus, usually shortly after defecation.

Toilet paper

toilet rolltoilet tissuelavatory paper
The anus and buttocks may be cleansed after defecation with toilet paper, similar paper products, or other absorbent material.
Toilet paper, sometimes called toilet tissue in Britain, is a tissue paper product primarily used to clean the anus and surrounding area of fecal material after defecation and to clean the perineal area of urine after urination or other bodily fluid releases.

Squat toilet

squat toiletssquatting toiletIndian-
Squat toilets are used by the vast majority of the world, including most of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
There is also no difference for defecation or squatting urination.

Levator ani

pubococcygeus musclepubococcygeuspuborectalis
The internal and external anal sphincters along with the puborectalis muscle allow the feces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting feces.

Valsalva maneuver

Valsalva manoeuvreValsalvaany activity that further increases the intracranial pressure
Defecation is normally assisted by taking a deep breath and trying to expel this air against a closed glottis (Valsalva maneuver).
The Valsalva maneuver is commonly practiced to induce defecation while in the sitting position on a toilet.

Caganer

a traditional toilet humor characterimposition of public civility regulations
A Caganer is a figurine depicted in the act of defecation appearing in nativity scenes in Catalonia and neighbouring areas with Catalan culture such as Andorra, Valencia, and Northern Catalonia (in southern France).

Retroperistalsis

antiperistalticreverse peristalsissegmental reversal
If the urge is not acted upon, the material in the rectum is often returned to the colon by reverse peristalsis, where more water is absorbed and the faeces is stored until the next mass peristaltic movement of the transverse and descending colon.
Retroperistalsis occurs pathologically during vomiting and physiologically at the first part of the duodenum where it protects from high acidity of food, and also at the terminal ileum, where an amount of water and electrolytes are absorbed to assist defecation.

Hygiene

hygienistpersonal hygienehygienic
Some doctors and people who work in the science and hygiene fields have stated that switching to using a bidet as a form of anal cleansing after defecation is both more hygienic and more environmentally friendly.
Anal hygiene is the practice that a person performs on the anal area of themselves after defecation.

Rectal tenesmus

tenesmusA constant feeling of having to go to the toileta feeling of incomplete emptying
Rectal tenesmus is a feeling of incomplete defecation.

Hemorrhoid

hemorrhoidshaemorrhoidspiles
Internal hemorrhoids often result in painless, bright red rectal bleeding when defecating.

Traditions of Catalonia

Catalan traditionCatalan traditionsareas with Catalan culture
Another custom is to put up a "Pessebre" Nativity scene, which often includes the Caganer, a figurine depicted in the act of defecation.

Shit

merdecrappiece of shit
As a noun, it refers to fecal matter, and as a verb it means to defecate; in the plural ("the shits"), it means diarrhoea.