Defective verb

defectivedefective verbsdefectiveness
In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation, or one which cannot be used in some other way as normal verbs can.wikipedia
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Modal verb

modalmodal auxiliariesmodals
Though these verbs were not originally defective, in most varieties of English today, they occur only in a modal auxiliary sense.
They are auxiliary verbs as are be, do, and have, but unlike those three verbs, they are grammatically defective.

English subjunctive

subjunctiveFuture subjunctivesubjunctive mood
(However, the use of the preterite form should as a subjunctive form continues, as in If I should go there tomorrow, ..., which contrasts with the indicative form I shall go there tomorrow.) The defective verb ought was etymologically the past tense of owe (the affection he ought his children), but it has since split off, leaving owe as a non-defective verb with its original sense and a regular past tense (owed).
Note also the defective verb beware, which lacks indicative forms, but has a present subjunctive: (that) she beware…

Impersonal verb

impersonalWeather verbimpersonal constructions
Impersonal verbs such as to rain and to snow share some characteristics with the defective verbs in that forms such as I rain or they snow are not often found; however, the crucial distinction is that impersonal verbs are "missing" certain forms for semantic reasons—in other words, the forms themselves exist and the verb is capable of being fully conjugated with all its forms (and is therefore not defective) but some forms are unlikely to be found because they appear meaningless or nonsensical.
Most impersonal constructions in Spanish involves: a) using a special verb in third-person defective verb with a direct object as its only argument.

Deponent verb

deponentdeponent rootsdeponent verbs
Compare deponent verbs, which are passive in form and active in meaning.

Unpaired word

unpaired
* Unpaired word – another form of lexical gap

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation, or one which cannot be used in some other way as normal verbs can.

Verb

verbssubject-verb agreementv.
In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation, or one which cannot be used in some other way as normal verbs can.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
Defective verbs cannot be conjugated in certain tenses, aspects, or moods.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
Defective verbs cannot be conjugated in certain tenses, aspects, or moods.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsindicative
Defective verbs cannot be conjugated in certain tenses, aspects, or moods.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The most commonly recognized defective verbs in English are auxiliary verbs—the class of preterite-present verbs—can/could, may/might, shall/should, must, ought to, and will/would (would being a later historical development).

Germanic verb

preterite-present verbpreterite-presentstrong verbs
The most commonly recognized defective verbs in English are auxiliary verbs—the class of preterite-present verbs—can/could, may/might, shall/should, must, ought to, and will/would (would being a later historical development).

Gerund

English gerundgerundsfused participle
For example, can lacks an infinitive, future tense, participle, imperative, and gerund.

Preterite

pastpreteritpreterite tense
Some verbs are becoming more defective as time goes on; for example, although might is etymologically the past tense (preterite) of may, it is no longer generally used as such (*he might not pass for "he was forbidden to pass").

Homograph

homographsvery similar appearance
(The forms with an asterisk are impossible, at least with respect to the relevant sense of the verb; these phonemes may by coincidence be attested with respect to a homograph [as with "canning" = "the act of preserving and packaging in cans"].)

Canning

cannerycannedcanned food
(The forms with an asterisk are impossible, at least with respect to the relevant sense of the verb; these phonemes may by coincidence be attested with respect to a homograph [as with "canning" = "the act of preserving and packaging in cans"].)

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
In Arabic, defective verbs are called أفعال جامدة (lit., solid verbs).

Negative verb

negative auxiliarynegative auxiliary verbnegative verbs
The negative verb (ei, et, en, emme...) also has no infinitive form nor a 1st person singular imperative form.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
It remains popular in the related Dutch language as verkiezen, e.g. Verkiezingen in Nederland (Wikipedia in Dutch).

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
"No single Greek verb shows all the tenses", and "most verbs have only six of" the nine classes of tense-systems, and "[s]carcely any verb shows all nine systems".

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
Copula is lacks a future tense, imperative mood, and verbal noun.

Hortative

cohortativehortatorycohortative mood
말다 (malda, "to stop or desist") may only be used in the imperative form or in the hortative form, after an 'action verb + 지 (ji)' construction.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Latin has defective verbs that possess forms only in the perfect system; such verbs have no present tense forms whatsoever.

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
Latin has defective verbs that possess forms only in the perfect system; such verbs have no present tense forms whatsoever.

Pluperfect

past perfectPast perfect tensePast Perfect (Sof Davar)
Latin defective verbs also possess regularly formed pluperfect forms (with a simple past tense meaning) and future perfect forms (with a simple future tense meaning).