Defoliant

defoliationdefoliantsdefoliatedefoliateddefoliatingdefoliants, chemicaldefoliatordefoliating agents
A defoliant is any herbicidal chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.wikipedia
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Agent Orange

defoliantVietnamdefoliants
Defoliants have also been used in warfare as a means to deprive an enemy of food crops and/or hiding cover, most notably by the United States in the Vietnam War. Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and the Army Chemical Corps who served in the Vietnam War were occupationally exposed to Agent Orange have a higher incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. Military during the Vietnam War to defoliate regions of Vietnam from 1961 to 1971, has been linked to several long-term health issues.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
A defoliant is any herbicidal chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off. Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
Defoliant, similar to herbicides, but designed to remove foliage (leaves) rather than kill the plant.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-D2, 4-Ddichlorprop-p dimethylamine salt
Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
2,4-D is one of the oldest and most widely available herbicides and defoliants in the world, having been commercially available since 1945, and is now produced by many chemical companies since the patent on it has long since expired.

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4,5-Ttrioxone2,4,5‐T
Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants.

Green Revolution

techniquesagricultural revolutioncommercial large-scale monoculture
Worldwide use of defoliants, along with the development of other herbicides and pesticides, allowed for the Green Revolution, an increase in agricultural production in mid-20th century.
Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and defoliants and rely on machines, which as of 2014 rely on or are derived from crude oil, making agriculture increasingly reliant on crude oil extraction.

Rainbow Herbicides

Rainbow Herbicides
Success with Project AGILE field tests with herbicides in South Vietnam in 1961 and inspiration by the British use of herbicides and defoliants during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s led to the formal herbicidal program Trail Dust (see Operation Ranch Hand).

Cotton

cotton woolcotton industrycotton fiber
Defoliants have a practical use in the harvesting of certain crops, particularly cotton, in the United States as well as a number of other cotton-producing countries.
Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze.

Chemical Corps

Chemical Warfare ServiceChemicalU.S. Chemical Warfare Service
Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and the Army Chemical Corps who served in the Vietnam War were occupationally exposed to Agent Orange have a higher incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases.
Ranch Hand was a herbicidal warfare program which used herbicides and defoliants such as Agent Orange.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in Vietnamwar
Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and the Army Chemical Corps who served in the Vietnam War were occupationally exposed to Agent Orange have a higher incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. Military during the Vietnam War to defoliate regions of Vietnam from 1961 to 1971, has been linked to several long-term health issues.
One of the most controversial aspects of the U.S. military effort in Southeast Asia was the widespread use of chemical defoliants between 1961 and 1971.

February 1962

Operation Ranch Hand: Three U.S. Air Force officers were killed when their Fairchild C-123 Provider became the first USAF plane to be lost in Vietnam. The cause of the crash was not determined, although the concern, that it was shot down by Communist insurgents, led to orders that the defoliant spraying aircraft receive a fighter escort.

Agent Orange Act of 1991

Agent Orange Act
Agent Orange Act of 1991 establishes provisions for the National Academy of Sciences to analyze and summarize scientific evidence regarding presumptive military service exposure to defoliants, dioxins and herbicides, better known as Agent Orange, during the Vietnam War era.

Agent Purple

Purple
Agent Purple is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in their herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.

Kauri dieback

Kauri dieback is an incurable, fatal disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora agathidicida which affects the New Zealand kauri tree (Agathis australis). Symptoms include root rot and associated rot in a collar around the base of the tree, bleeding resin, yellowing and chlorosis of the leaves followed by extensive defoliation, and finally, death.

Agent Pink

Pink
Agent Pink is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.

1962 in aviation

1962September 1962June 1962
February 2 – A U.S. Air Force Fairchild C-123 Provider crashes while spraying defoliant near Biên Hòa, South Vietnam, with the loss of three crew members. It is the first U.S. Air Force aircraft lost in Vietnam.

Cát Tiên National Park

Cát TiênBau Sau Wetlands and Seasonal Floodplainthe Park
3. Secondary forest with abundant bamboo species: this due to human activity, the forest having been degraded by logging, forest fires and in some areas war-time defoliants, which have caused the forest canopy to be replaced with bamboos.

Agent Green

Agent Green is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.

Archips semiferanus

oak leaf roller mothsoak leaf roller
Archips semiferanus (also known as Archips semiferana) is a species of moth in the family Tortricidae, and one of several species of moth commonly known as oak leafroller or oak leaf roller. The larvae feed on the leaves of oak trees in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada and are a major defoliator of oak trees, which can lead to tree mortality.

Gagetown (film)

Gagetown'' (film)
Gagetown is a 2009 documentary film that looks into the massive defoliant spray program that was used at CFB Gagetown since 1956.

Acleris semipurpurana

oak leaf tier mothsoak leaf tier
Acleris semipurpurana is a species in the moth family Tortricidae, and one of several species of moth commonly known as oak leaftier or oak leaf tier. The larvae feed on the leaves of oak trees in the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada which can be a major cause of defoliation.

I Was Only 19

I Was Only 19 (A Walk in the Light Green)I Was Only Nineteen (A Walk in the Light Green)I Was Only 19 (A Walk in the Green Light)
The song is a first-person account of a typical Australian soldier's experience in the Vietnam War, from training in Australia to first hand exposure to military operations and combat, and ultimately his return home disillusioned, psychologically scarred and possibly suffering from the effects of the chemical defoliant Agent Orange.

Canada and the Vietnam War

Vietnam Warfled to Canadamigrated to Canada
Sold goods included relatively benign items like boots, but also aircraft, munitions, napalm and commercial defoliants, the use of which was fiercely opposed by anti-war protesters at the time.

Cherry leaf spot

If the disease is not controlled and allowed to persist for several years there could be various adverse effects to the overall cherry production of a tree primarily due to the cycle of early season and repeated defoliation.

Role of the United States in the Vietnam War

VietnamizationAmerican troops thatUnited States involvement in the Vietnam War
October 1962 — Operation Ranch Hand begins. U.S. planes spray herbicides and defoliants over South Vietnam until 1971.