Defoliant

defoliationdefoliantsdefoliatedefoliateddefoliatingdefoliants, chemicaldefoliating agentsdefoliator
A defoliant is any herbicidal chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.wikipedia
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Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
A defoliant is any herbicidal chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off. Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
Defoliant, similar to herbicides, but designed to remove foliage (leaves) rather than kill the plant.

Agent Orange

defoliantAgent Orange § U.S. veterans class action lawsuit against manufacturersdefoliants
Defoliants have also been used in warfare as a means to deprive an enemy of food crops and/or hiding cover, most notably by the United States in the Vietnam War. Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and the Army Chemical Corps who served in the Vietnam War were occupationally exposed to Agent Orange have a higher incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. Military during the Vietnam War to defoliate regions of Vietnam from 1961 to 1971, has been linked to several long-term health issues.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-D2, 4-D2,4D
Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
2,4-D is one of the oldest and most widely available herbicides and defoliants in the world, having been commercially available since 1945, and is now produced by many chemical companies since the patent on it has long since expired.

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4,5-T2,4,5‐T245-T
Two of the oldest chemical herbicides used as defoliants are 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants.

Green Revolution

agricultural revolutioncommercial large-scale monoculturehigh-yield IR8 rice cultivar
Worldwide use of defoliants, along with the development of other herbicides and pesticides, allowed for the Green Revolution, an increase in agricultural production in mid-20th century.
Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and defoliants and rely on machines, which as of 2014 rely on or are derived from crude oil, making agriculture increasingly reliant on crude oil extraction.

Cotton

cotton woolcotton industrycotton fiber
Defoliants have a practical use in the harvesting of certain crops, particularly cotton, in the United States as well as a number of other cotton-producing countries.
Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze.

Rainbow Herbicides

military herbicidesrainbow herbicide
Rainbow Herbicides
Success with Project AGILE field tests with herbicides in South Vietnam in 1961 and inspiration by the British use of herbicides and defoliants during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s led to the formal herbicidal program Trail Dust (see Operation Ranch Hand).

Chemical Corps

Chemical Warfare ServiceChemicalU.S. Chemical Warfare Service
Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and the Army Chemical Corps who served in the Vietnam War were occupationally exposed to Agent Orange have a higher incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases.
Ranch Hand was a herbicidal warfare program which used herbicides and defoliants such as Agent Orange.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in Vietnamwar
Members of the Air Force Ranch Hand and the Army Chemical Corps who served in the Vietnam War were occupationally exposed to Agent Orange have a higher incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. Military during the Vietnam War to defoliate regions of Vietnam from 1961 to 1971, has been linked to several long-term health issues.
One of the most controversial aspects of the U.S. military effort in Southeast Asia was the widespread use of chemical defoliants between 1961 and 1971.

Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
A defoliant is any herbicidal chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Worldwide use of defoliants, along with the development of other herbicides and pesticides, allowed for the Green Revolution, an increase in agricultural production in mid-20th century.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Defoliants have also been used in warfare as a means to deprive an enemy of food crops and/or hiding cover, most notably by the United States in the Vietnam War. Defoliants have a practical use in the harvesting of certain crops, particularly cotton, in the United States as well as a number of other cotton-producing countries.

Phenoxy herbicide

phenoxy acidphenoxy herbicideschlorophenoxy acid herbicides
These phenoxy herbicides were designed to selectively kill weeds and unwanted plants in croplands.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
They were first introduced at the beginning of World War II and became widespread in use in agriculture following the end of the War.

Thidiazuron

Common harvest-aiding chemical defoliants include tribufos, dimethipin, and thidiazuron.

United States Department of Agriculture

USDADepartment of AgricultureU.S. Department of Agriculture
According to a 1998 report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), tribufos and thidiazuron accounted for 60% of crop area that was treated by defoliants during that crop year.

National Agricultural Statistics Service

U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service
According to a 1998 report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), tribufos and thidiazuron accounted for 60% of crop area that was treated by defoliants during that crop year.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection AgencyEPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) concluded that the use of agricultural defoliants led to increased risks of water contamination and dangers to freshwater and marine life.

Marine life

marinemarine animalsea life
In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) concluded that the use of agricultural defoliants led to increased risks of water contamination and dangers to freshwater and marine life.

Carcinogen

carcinogeniccarcinogenscarcinogenicity
High doses of tribufos were labeled as a possible carcinogen and a toxin to freshwater and marine invertebrates.

Invertebrate

invertebratesmacroinvertebratemacroinvertebrates
High doses of tribufos were labeled as a possible carcinogen and a toxin to freshwater and marine invertebrates.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
A published study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reported that through successive surface runoff events in defoliated cotton fields, defoliant concentrations decreased exponentially within the test area and could negatively affect marine life in the runoff zones.

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

dioxinsdioxindioxin compound
Agent Orange contains a mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T as well as dioxin contaminants.

Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’sAlzheimer’s disease
Among other occupations, farmers are at a significantly higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease due to a greater chance of defoliant exposure.

Crop destruction

burning cropsdestroying its crops
Crop destruction