Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearingclearingtropical deforestationforest clearanceclearedforest lossclearancelogging
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use.wikipedia
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Reforestation

reforestedreforestingreforest
The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.

Tropical rainforest

tropical rain foresttropical rainforeststropical
The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.
Tropical rain forests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance throughout the 20th century, and the area covered by rainforests around the world is rapidly shrinking.

Human impact on the environment

anthropogenichuman activityhuman impacts
In many countries, deforestation–both naturally occurring and human-induced–is an ongoing issue.
Some human activities that cause damage (either directly or indirectly) to the environment on a global scale include human reproduction, overconsumption, overexploitation, pollution, and deforestation, to name but a few.

Soil erosion

erosionErodedsoil erosion by water
Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue. Easter Island has suffered from heavy soil erosion in recent centuries, aggravated by agriculture and deforestation.
Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion.

Charcoal

collierscolliercharcoal burners
Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation.
The massive production of charcoal (at its height employing hundreds of thousands, mainly in Alpine and neighbouring forests) was a major cause of deforestation, especially in Central Europe.

Habitat destruction

habitat losshabitat degradationloss of habitat
The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity.
Now it is only found in fragmented and isolated regions in the southwest of the country, as a result of widespread deforestation in the 20th century.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming.

Biosequestration

biologicalsequester
It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Candell and Raupach argue that there are four primary ways in which reforestation and reducing deforestation can increase biosequestration.

Desertification

desertifiedexpansion of desertscombat and prevent desertification
Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.
The most widely accepted of these is that of the Princeton University Dictionary which defines it as "the process of fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate agriculture".

Land development

developmentland developerdeveloper
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use.
Clearing, terracing or land levelling

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

REDDREDD+Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as a new potential to complement ongoing climate policies.
In the last two decades, various studies estimate that land use change, including deforestation and forest degradation, accounts for 12-29% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Carbon sink

carbon dioxide sinksinkssink
Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide (see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle).
Forest conservation activities or activities avoiding deforestation, which would result in emission reduction through the conservation of existing carbon stocks, are not eligible at this time.

Landslide

landslideslandslipdebris avalanche
Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue.
deforestation, cultivation and construction;

Forest transition

The forest area change may follow a pattern suggested by the forest transition (FT) theory, whereby at early stages in its development a country is characterized by high forest cover and low deforestation rates (HFLD countries).
Forest transition refers to a geographic theory describing a reversal or turnaround in land-use trends for a given territory from a period of net forest area loss (i.e., deforestation) to a period of net forest area gain.

Logging

lumberingloggedlogs
Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32%; logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%.
Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, (for example, healthy regeneration of new trees on the site) and a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
The Neolithic period saw extensive deforestation for farming land.
Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat.

Rondônia

Rondônia stateROState of Rondônia
A study in Rondônia, Brazil, has shown that deforestation also removes the microbial community which is involved in the recycling of nutrients, the production of clean water and the removal of pollutants.
Rondonia was originally home to over 200,000 km 2 of rainforest, but has become one of the most deforested places in the Amazon.

Erosion

erodederodingerode
Due to surface plant litter, forests that are undisturbed have a minimal rate of erosion.
Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion.

Easter Island

Rapa NuiEasterIsla de Pascua
Easter Island has suffered from heavy soil erosion in recent centuries, aggravated by agriculture and deforestation.
However, land clearing for cultivation and the introduction of the Polynesian rat led to gradual deforestation.

Holocene extinction

extinctmass species extinctionsixth mass extinction
Others state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction.
Other, related human causes of the extinction event include deforestation, hunting, pollution, the introduction in various regions of non-native species, and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread through livestock and crops.

Forest cover

tree covercoverforest land
Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation.
Global forest cover, however crucial for soil health, the water cycle, climate and air quality it is, is severely threatened by deforestation everywhere, as a direct consequence of agriculture, logging, and mining all of which can be attributed to human overpopulation.

Human overpopulation

overpopulationexpanding human populationoverpopulated
Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization.
Some critics warn, this will be at a high cost to the Earth: "the technological optimists are probably correct in claiming that overall world food production can be increased substantially over the next few decades...[however] the environmental cost of what Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich describe as 'turning the Earth into a giant human feedlot' could be severe. A large expansion of agriculture to provide growing populations with improved diets is likely to lead to further deforestation, loss of species, soil erosion, and pollution from pesticides and fertilizer runoff as farming intensifies and new land is brought into production."

Ranch

rancherranchingcattle ranch
Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use.
Particularly in Brazil, the 20th century marked the rapid growth of deforestation, as rain forest lands were cleared by slash and burn methods that allowed grass to grow for livestock, but also led to the depletion of the land within only a few years.

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed

CollapseCollapse'' (film, 2010)Collapse. How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
Jared Diamond gives an extensive look into the collapse of the ancient Easter Islanders in his book Collapse.
1) Deforestation and habitat destruction

Road

roadsroad constructionroad building
Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of (forest) roads and the use of mechanized equipment.
The process is often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying of pavement material.