Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

DHEA sulfateDHEA-SDHEASDHEA-sulfatedehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S)
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.wikipedia
138 Related Articles

Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cells
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex. DHEA and DHEA-S are produced in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

Neurosteroid

neuroactive steroidneurosteroidsneuroactive steroids
The steroid is hormonally inert and is instead an important neurosteroid and neurotrophin.
Major examples include the pregnanes pregnenolone sulfate (PS), epipregnanolone, and isopregnanolone (sepranolone), the androstanes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S; prasterone sulfate), and the cholestane 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (NMDA receptor-selective; very potent).

Androgen

androgensandrogenicAndrogenic steroid
Although DHEA-S itself is hormonally inert, it has been thought that it can be converted back into DHEA, which is weakly androgenic and estrogenic, and that DHEA in turn can be transformed into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as well as estrogens like estradiol. Common etiologies for hirsutism include ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary syndrome) and adrenal dysfunction (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cushing's syndrome, androgen secreting tumors); 90% of these cases are caused by PCOS or are idiopathic in nature.
Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the subset includes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), androstenedione (A4), and androstenediol (A5).

Neurotrophin

neurotrophinsneurotrophicmicroneurotrophin
The steroid is hormonally inert and is instead an important neurosteroid and neurotrophin.
The endogenous steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), have been identified as small-molecule agonists of the TrkA and p75 NTR with high affinity (around 5 nM), and hence as so-called "microneurotrophins".

NMDA receptor

NMDANMDARNMDA receptors
It has been found to act as a positive allosteric modulator of the NMDA receptor (50 nM–1 μM), negative allosteric modulator of the GABA A and glycine receptors, and weak agonist of the sigma-1 receptor (K d > 50 μM).

Pregnenolone

5-pregnenolone
DHEA is synthesized from cholesterol via the enzymes cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1; P450scc) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), with pregnenolone and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone as intermediates.
Pregnenolone and its 3β-sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, like DHEA, DHEA sulfate, and progesterone, belong to the group of neurosteroids that are found in high concentrations in certain areas of the brain, and are synthesized there.

Sex hormone-binding globulin

SHBGsex hormone binding globulinEstradiol-binding protein
In contrast to DHEA, DHEA-S is not bound to any extent to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is weakly bound to SHBG, but dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is not bound to SHBG.

Zona reticularis

zona reticulosa
DHEA and DHEA-S are produced in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
DHEA is further converted to DHEA-sulfate via a sulfotransferase, SULT2A1.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
Although DHEA-S itself is hormonally inert, it has been thought that it can be converted back into DHEA, which is weakly androgenic and estrogenic, and that DHEA in turn can be transformed into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as well as estrogens like estradiol.
In contrast to testosterone, DHEA and DHEA sulfate have been found to act as high-affinity agonists of these receptors.

Steroid sulfatase

STSsteryl-sulfatasesteroid sulfatase inhibitor
DHEA-S can be converted back into DHEA via steroid sulfatase (STS).
This includes DHEA sulfate, estrone sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, and cholesterol sulfate, all to their unconjugated forms (DHEA, estrone, pregnenolone, and cholesterol, respectively).

Adrenarche

They remain low during childhood until adrenarche around 6 to 8 years of age, at which point they markedly increase, eventually peaking at around 20 to 30 years of age.
During adrenarche the adrenal glands secrete increased levels of weak adrenal androgens, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (A4), but without increased cortisol levels.

Menopause

postmenopausalmenopausalpremenopausal
In premenopausal women, 40 to 75% of circulating testosterone is derived from peripheral metabolism of DHEA-S, and in postmenopausal women, over 90% of estrogens, mainly estrone, are derived from peripheral metabolism of DHEA-S.
In contrast to the sudden fall in estradiol during menopause, the levels of total and free testosterone, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione appear to decline more or less steadily with age.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Common etiologies for hirsutism include ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary syndrome) and adrenal dysfunction (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cushing's syndrome, androgen secreting tumors); 90% of these cases are caused by PCOS or are idiopathic in nature.
It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to testosterone) in humans.

Hirsutism

increased hair growthhirsuteexcessive hair growth
Women with hirsutism commonly present with mildly elevated DHEA-S levels.
Many women present with an elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOSPolycystic Ovarian Syndromepolycystic ovaries
Common etiologies for hirsutism include ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary syndrome) and adrenal dysfunction (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cushing's syndrome, androgen secreting tumors); 90% of these cases are caused by PCOS or are idiopathic in nature.

Adrenal insufficiency

adrenocortical insufficiencyadrenal suppressionhypoadrenalism
The Endocrine Society recommends against the therapeutic use of DHEA-S in both healthy women and those with adrenal insufficiency, as its role is not clear from studies performed so far.

Endogeny (biology)

endogenousendogenicendogenously
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.

Androstane

6-oxo-androsteneandrosta-3,5-dieneandrostene
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.

Steroid

steroidssteroidogenesisbiosynthesis of steroids
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.

Sulfate

sulfatessulphateSO 4
It is the 3β-sulfate ester and a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that circulates in far greater relative concentrations.

Ester

estersesterificationmonoester
It is the 3β-sulfate ester and a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that circulates in far greater relative concentrations.

Metabolite

metabolitesactive metabolitebreakdown product
It is the 3β-sulfate ester and a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that circulates in far greater relative concentrations.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAAndrostenolone5-Dehydroepiandrosterone
It is the 3β-sulfate ester and a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that circulates in far greater relative concentrations.

Biotransformation

conjugateconjugationconjugated
Similarly to other conjugated steroids, DHEA-S is devoid of hormonal activity, lacking affinity for the steroid hormone receptors.

Ligand (biochemistry)

affinityligandbinding affinity
Similarly to other conjugated steroids, DHEA-S is devoid of hormonal activity, lacking affinity for the steroid hormone receptors.