A report on MalariaInsecticide and Deltamethrin

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
FLIT manual spray pump for insecticides from 1928
Main symptoms of malaria
Farmer spraying an insecticide on a cashewnut tree in Tanzania
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Biosynthesis of antifeedants by the action of myrosinase.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data

Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid ester insecticide.

- Deltamethrin

Deltamethrin plays a key role in controlling malaria vectors, and is used in the manufacture of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets; however, resistance of mosquitos and bed bugs to deltamethrin has seen a widespread increase.

- Deltamethrin

The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.

- Malaria

It has no observable acute toxicity in rats and is approved by World Health Organization (WHO) for use in drinking water cisterns to combat malaria.

- Insecticide

As of 2006, the World Health Organization recommends 12 insecticides in IRS operations, including DDT and the pyrethroids cyfluthrin and deltamethrin.

- Malaria


- Insecticide
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

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Commercial product concentrate containing 50% DDT, circa 1960s


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Colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride.

Colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride.

Commercial product concentrate containing 50% DDT, circa 1960s
Commercial product of Ciba-Geigy Néocide (powder box, 50 g) containing 10% DDT, made in France.
An airplane spraying DDT over Baker County, Oregon as part of a spruce budworm control project, 1955
DDT spray log in Bosa (Sardinia)
Degradation of DDT to form DDE (by elimination of HCl, left) and DDD (by reductive dechlorination, right)
A U.S. soldier is demonstrating DDT hand-spraying equipment. DDT was used to control the spread of typhus-carrying lice.
Spraying hospital beds with DDT, PAIGC hospital of Ziguinchor, 1973
Biomagnification is the build up of toxins in a food chain. The DDT concentration is in parts per million. As the trophic level increases in a food chain, the amount of toxic build up also increases. The X's represent the amount of toxic build up accumulating as the trophic level increases. Toxins build up in organism's tissues and fat. Predators accumulate higher toxins than the prey.

Originally developed as an insecticide, it became infamous for its environmental impacts.

DDT was used in the second half of World War II to limit the spread of the insect-borne diseases malaria and typhus among civilians and troops.

Pyrethroid insecticides (e.g. deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) can overcome some of these issues, increasing participation.