Delusion

delusionsdelusionalparanoid delusionsdeludedfalse beliefsabnormal beliefsDelusional beliefsdelusional elaborationDelusional projectionfalse dogma
A delusion is firm and fixed belief based on inadequate grounds not amenable to rational argument or evidence to contrary, not in sync with regional, cultural and educational background.wikipedia
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Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
They have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.
Symptoms may include false beliefs (delusions) and seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear (hallucinations).

Schizophrenia

schizophrenicschizophrenicspositive symptoms
They have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Grandiose delusions or delusions of grandeur are principally a subtype of delusional disorder but could possibly feature as a symptom of schizophrenia and manic episodes of bipolar disorder. According to the DSM-IV-TR, persecutory delusions are the most common form of delusions in schizophrenia, where the person believes they are "being tormented, followed, sabotaged, tricked, spied on, or ridiculed."
Other symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that do not exist, reduced social engagement and emotional expression and lack of motivation.

Paraphrenia

paraphrenic syndromeparaphrénie
They have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.
Paraphrenia (from – beside, near + φρήν – intellect, mind) is a mental disorder characterized by an organized system of paranoid delusions with or without hallucinations (the positive symptoms of schizophrenia) and without deterioration of intellect or personality (its negative symptom).

Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief system
Delusion arises when the truth value of the form is clearly nil.

Capgras delusion

Capgras syndromeimpostor
Capgras delusions have been associated with occipito-temporal damage and may be related to failure to elicit normal emotions or memories in response to faces.
Capgras delusion is a psychiatric disorder in which a person holds a delusion that a friend, spouse, parent, or other close family member (or pet) has been replaced by an identical impostor.

Delusional disorder

paranoid delusiondelusionaldelusional disorders
Grandiose delusions or delusions of grandeur are principally a subtype of delusional disorder but could possibly feature as a symptom of schizophrenia and manic episodes of bipolar disorder.
Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.

Psychotic depression

depressive psychosisdelusional depressiondepression
They have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.
Individuals with psychotic depression experience the symptoms of a major depressive episode, along with one or more psychotic symptoms, including delusions and/or hallucinations.

Religious delusion

Grandiose religious delusionreligious delusionsreligious psychosis
Grandiose religious delusion: Belief that the affected person is a god or chosen to act as a god.
A religious delusion is any delusion involving religious themes or subject matter.

Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’sAlzheimer’s disease
The volume of the hippocampus and parahippocampus is related to paranoid delusions in Alzheimer's disease, and has been reported to be abnormal post mortem in one person with delusions.
Approximately 30% of people with AD develop illusionary misidentifications and other delusional symptoms.

Thought insertion

believing thoughts are being inserted into one's mindDelusion of thought insertioninserted thoughts
Delusion of thought insertion: Belief that another thinks through the mind of the person.
This phenomenon is classified as a delusion.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
They have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Grandiose delusions or delusions of grandeur are principally a subtype of delusional disorder but could possibly feature as a symptom of schizophrenia and manic episodes of bipolar disorder.
Hypomania is the milder form of mania, defined as at least four days of the same criteria as mania, but which does not cause a significant decrease in the individual's ability to socialize or work, lacks psychotic features such as delusions or hallucinations, and does not require psychiatric hospitalization.

Karl Jaspers

JaspersJaspers, KarlJaspersian
Although non-specific concepts of madness have been around for several thousand years, the psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers was the first to define the three main criteria for a belief to be considered delusional in his 1913 book General Psychopathology.
Jaspers thought that psychiatrists could diagnose delusions in the same way.

Martha Mitchell effect

This is known as the Martha Mitchell effect, after the wife of the attorney general who alleged that illegal activity was taking place in the White House.
The Martha Mitchell effect is the process by which a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health clinician labels the patient's accurate perception of real events as delusional and misdiagnoses accordingly.

Confabulation

confabulatedfalse memoriesfalse memory
As a pathology, it is distinct from a belief based on false or incomplete information, confabulation, dogma, illusion, or some other misleading effects of perception.
Recent models of confabulation have attempted to build upon the link between delusion and confabulation.

Paranoia

paranoidmonsterparanoid delusions
It is important to distinguish true delusions from other symptoms such as anxiety, fear, or paranoia.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSMDSM-IVDSM-IV-TR
According to the DSM-IV-TR, persecutory delusions are the most common form of delusions in schizophrenia, where the person believes they are "being tormented, followed, sabotaged, tricked, spied on, or ridiculed."
Many were seen as reflections of broad underlying conflicts or maladaptive reactions to life problems, rooted in a distinction between neurosis and psychosis (roughly, anxiety/depression broadly in touch with reality, or hallucinations/delusions appearing disconnected from reality).

Involuntary commitment

sectionedcivil commitmentcommitted
Studies on psychiatric patients show that delusions vary in intensity and conviction over time, which suggests that certainty and incorrigibility are not necessary components of a delusional belief.
People with psychosis are occasionally driven by their delusions or hallucinations to harm themselves or others.

Illusion

illusionsillusionisticillusory
As a pathology, it is distinct from a belief based on false or incomplete information, confabulation, dogma, illusion, or some other misleading effects of perception.
Delusion

Gaslighting

gaslightgaslightedgaslights
A specific variant of this is when a person is fed lies in an attempt to convince them that they are delusional, a process called gaslighting, after the 1938 play Gaslight, the plot of which centered around the process.
In the story, a husband attempts to convince his wife and others that she is insane by manipulating small elements of their environment and insisting that she is mistaken, remembering things incorrectly, or delusional when she points out these changes.

R. D. Laing

LaingR.D. LaingRonald Laing
Critics (such as R. D. Laing) have argued that this leads to the diagnosis of delusions being based on the subjective understanding of a particular psychiatrist, who may not have access to all the information that might make a belief otherwise interpretable.
In 1913, psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers had pronounced, in his work, General Psychopathology, that many of the symptoms of mental illness (and particularly of delusions) were "un-understandable", and therefore were worthy of little consideration except as a sign of some other underlying primary disorder.

Cotard delusion

Cotard's syndromeCotard's DelusionCotard’s Syndrome
Cotard delusion: False belief that one does not exist or has died.
According to the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition), Cotard delusion falls under the category of somatic delusions, those that involve bodily functions or sensations.

Psychiatry

psychiatricpsychiatristpsychiatrists
In the early 1800s, psychiatry made advances in the diagnosis of mental illness by broadening the category of mental disease to include mood disorders, in addition to disease level delusion or irrationality.

Antipsychotic

antipsychoticsneurolepticneuroleptics
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

List of film score composers

film scoringSoundtrack composers
Barry Adamson (born 1958)Lost Highway, Delusion

Fregoli delusion

Fregoli
The Fregoli delusion is a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise.