A report on Jakarta and Demak Sultanate

Known range of Demak's military operation until the reign of Sultan Trenggana (1521-1546)
Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
Demak Great Mosque, built by Sultan Al-Fattah in the late 15th century with a traditional Javanese tajug stacked pyramidal roof
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
An early-18th century map of Java. Note that only major trading ports on the northern coast were known to the Europeans.
From west to east:
Batavia around 1780
Map by Egnazio Danti (1573) showing Dema on the center north coast of Iava Magiore (Java)
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
The greatest extent of Demak Sultanate during Trenggana's reign.
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Demak and nearby ports, with approximate coastline when Muria and Java were still separated
Aerial view of North Jakarta
Interior of the Grand Mosque of Demak showing saka guru or four main wooden columns. The mosque was built using vernacular Javanese architecture.
Ancol beach
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Ancol Gondola
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
Bank Indonesia head office
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
University of Indonesia campus
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java.

- Jakarta

Sunda Kelapa was later renamed Jayakarta.

- Demak Sultanate

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Overall

The territory of Sunda Kingdom

Sunda Kingdom

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The territory of Sunda Kingdom
The word Sunda written in Sundanese script
Batutulis inscription (dated 1533), in Bogor, commemorate the great King of Sunda Sri Baduga Maharaja (rule 1482-1521).
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
Sundanese traditional house with Julang Ngapak roof in Garut circa 1920s. It was built on poles and having a thatched roof, as described in a 12th-century Chinese source.
Old map of Java still thought that land of Sunda in the west is separated from the rest of Java island. Here the capital of Sunda is called Daio which refer to Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran
The ruin of Bojongmenje Hindu temple in Priangan highlands, estimated was built in the 7th century.
Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
One of Kawali inscriptions
Statue of a Hindu god from Talaga near Kuningan, West Java, dated from the Sunda Kingdom.
Keraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon. By 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost its important eastern port of Cirebon.
The port of Sunda Kelapa, the cradle of Jakarta. For centuries it was the royal port of Sunda Kingdom serving the capital Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran 60 kilometres inland to the south until it fell to Demak and Cirebon forces in 1527.
The Port of Banten in the 16th century. The Islamic Sultanate of Banten was responsible for the demise of Hindu Sunda Kingdom, and supplant it as the dominant polity in western parts of Java in the following centuries.
Hindu Brahmin's ritual objects, including bronze bell and holy water container from Kawali, the historic capital of Galuh Kingdom.
Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book "Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran" Part 2", 2005
Makuta Binokasih Sanghyang Paké, the royal crown of Sunda kingdom. After the fall of Pajajaran to Banten, the crown was evacuated to Sumedang Larang and become their regalia.
A Sundanese woman retrieving rice from a leuit, Sundanese economy mainly rely on rice agriculture
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva from Cibodas village, Cicalengka Subdistrict, Bandung Regency, West Java. Possibly from the Sunda Kingdom period 8th to 9th century.
A bronze statue of Hindu god Shiva discovered in Talaga near Kuningan, West Java. Sunda kingdom period, circa 14th century.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Lontar palm-leaf manuscript written in Sundanese

The Sunda Kingdom (Karajaan Sunda, ) was a Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

The specific mention of Majapahit, Malacca and Demak, allow us to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the latter part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest.

Banten Sultanate

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Bantenese Islamic trading kingdom founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java; the contemporary English name of both was Bantam.

Bantenese Islamic trading kingdom founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java; the contemporary English name of both was Bantam.

Rough extent of Banten at the death of Hasanudin, controlling both sides of Sunda Strait
Bird's-eye view of the city of Bantam, 1599.
Colonial era sketch of Grand Mosque of Banten
The reception of Cornelis de Houtman in Java in 1596 by Paulides.
Warriors of Banten, 1596.
The golden crown of the Sultan of Banten
The statue of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa
De Stad Bantam, engraving by François Valentijn, Amsterdam, 1726
Banten Residency after annexation to Dutch East Indies, with neighbouring Batavia (now Jakarta) and Buitenzorg (now Bogor)
The ruins of Kaibon palace, the former residence of Banten Sultan's queen mother.
Piper nigrum, the main commodity of Banten.
The Great Mosque of Banten, the remnant of Banten Sultanate, a popular destination for Indonesian Muslims.

After some twenty years the new dynasty was so firmly established that Hasanuddin had no hesitation in leaving the kingdom in 1546 to take part in a military expedition against Pasuruan in eastern Java, at the request of Sultan Trenggana, the third sultan of Demak.

Ranamanggala restored the state's authority on commercial affairs; levying taxes, imposing price and volume of trade, and exiling the ponggawa elites to the port of Jayakarta in the east, stripping the merchants' power altogether.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak, Cirebon, and Banten were ascendant.

Sunda Kelapa

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Harbormaster Tower of Sunda Kelapa.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar commemorating a treaty between the kingdoms of Portugal and Sunda in Indonesian National Museum, Jakarta.
Old warehouses near Sunda Kelapa port, now the (Maritime Museum).

Sunda Kelapa (, Sunda Kalapa) is the old port of Jakarta located on the estuarine of Ciliwung River.

In exchange for military assistance against the threat of the rising Islamic Javan Sultanate of Demak, Prabu Surawisesa, king of Sunda at that time, granted them free access to the pepper trade.

Fatahillah (right) as depicted in 2008 Indonesian stamp.

Fatahillah

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Fatahillah (right) as depicted in 2008 Indonesian stamp.

Fatahillah was a commander of the Sultanate of Demak who is known for leading the conquest of Sunda Kelapa in 1527 and changing it name to Jayakarta.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

The Sultanate of Demak became the new strongest power, gaining supremacy among city-states on the northern coast of Java.

In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia.

Palembang

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Capital city of the Indonesian province of South Sumatra.

Capital city of the Indonesian province of South Sumatra.

Srivijaya Archaeological Park located southwest from Palembang city centre (green). The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
A statue of Buddha, discovered in Bukit Seguntang archaeological site, today displayed in Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum Palembang
The walled city of Palembang with its three fortresses in 1682
Local elders of Palembang during the Dutchcolonial period
A painting of Palembang during Dutch rule
Coat of arms of Palembang during colonial era, adopted in 1925
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers landing during the battle of Palembang, 13 February 1942
The opening ceremony of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games in Jakabaring Stadium, Palembang, 11 November 2011
A NASA satellite image showing the extent of the haze on 24 September 2015. Palembang was directly affected by the haze during this time, disrupting air travels and worsening the health of its residents.
Panorama of Palembang from southeast to southwest as seen from Pasar 16 Ilir
Kajang boats were widely used for transportation in Musi River during colonial times.
Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport station of the Palembang Light Rail Transit
View of central area in Palembang Icon Shopping Mall
Great Mosque of Palembang
People enjoying local dishes on floating warung boats
Rumah Limas of IDR 10000 banknote is now located in Museum Balaputradewa, Palembang
Bukit Siguntang Mahameru (Seguntang Hill), Palembang. Based on the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), the hill witnessed the arrival of Sri Maharaja Sang Sapurba Paduka Sri Trimurti Tri Buana, a legendary figure believed to be the progenitor of many royal Malay dynasties in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula and Borneo.
Al-Qur'an Al-Akbar, a major religious site in Palembang. A five-story gigantic replica of the Quran.
Palembang bride in Aesan Gede wedding costume wearing gold jewellery and songket
Jakabaring Aquatic Center in Jakabaring Sport City complex
SMA Negeri 19 Palembang, a public high school in Palembang
SMA PGRI 2 Palembang, a private high school in Palembang

Palembang was the host city of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games and the 2018 Asian Games along with Jakarta.

After the Demak Sultanate fell under Kingdom of Pajang, a Demak nobleman, Geding Suro with his followers fled to Palembang and established a new dynasty.