A report on Demchugdongrub

Demchugdongrub in his Japanese style uniform
Prince Demchugdongrub (left), Li Shouxin (center)

Qing dynasty Mongol prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia.

- Demchugdongrub

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Mengjiang

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Autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the nominal sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China .

Autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the nominal sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China .

Demchugdongrub (left)
Foundation ceremony of Mengjiang's government
One-yuan banknote issued by the Bank of Mengjiang, 1940
A 1943 postage stamp of Mengjiang
Mengjiang shrine in Zhangjiakou, Hebei, in the 1950s
Inner Mongolia in 1911
A map of the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government
The Reformed Government's territory in central China from 1937 until 1940 when all three states, Mengjiang, the Provisional Government of the ROC (not to be confused with the 1912 government of the same name and flag) and the Reformed Government of the ROC, merged into the Reorganized National Government of the ROC.
alt=A lecture with a map of Mengjiang|A lecture held in Japan in 1940 discussing Inner Mongolia and Mengjiang, note the map in the background featuring the state
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the Mongol Military Government (1936–1937) and the Mongol United Autonomous Government (1937–1939)
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the South Chahar Autonomous Government (1937–1939)
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the North Shanxi Autonomous Government (1937–1939)

The capital was Kalgan, from where it was under the nominal rule of Mongol nobleman Demchugdongrub.

Inner Mongolia

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Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Inner Mongolian steppes
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
Theater in Hohhot
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Ulaanbutan grassland
Inner Mongolian grassland
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

On 8 December 1937, Mongolian Prince Demchugdongrub (also known as "De Wang") declared independence for the remaining parts of Inner Mongolia (i.e., the Suiyuan and Chahar provinces) as Mengjiang, and signed agreements with Manchukuo and Japan.

Flag of the Mongol Military Government
(1936–1939)

Inner Mongolian Army

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Flag of the Mongol Military Government
(1936–1939)
A unit of Prince De Wang's personal cavalry, 1935
An Inner Mongolian infantryman in full uniform, 1937

The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub.

General Fu Zuoyi

Fu Zuoyi

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Chinese military leader.

Chinese military leader.

General Fu Zuoyi
General Fu Zuoyi

Three months later, the head of the Political Council, Prince Teh (Demchugdongrub) declared that he was the ruler of an independent Mongolia (Mengguguo), and organized an army with the aid of Japanese equipment and training.

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.

Puppet state

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State that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.

State that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.
First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812
Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow.
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence
Wang Jingwei receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
German-occupied Europe at the height of the Axis conquests in 1942
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in 2013. Both Abkhazia and Transnistria have been described as puppet states of Russia.
Northern Cyprus in 2009
The greatest extent of the territory which the Soviet Union politically, economically and militarily dominated as of 1959–1960, after the Cuban Revolution but before the official 1961 Sino-Soviet split (total area: c. 34,374,483 km2)
Map of bantustans in South West Africa (present-day Namibia) as of 1978

Mengjiang, set up in Inner Mongolia on 12 May 1936, as the Mongol Military Government (蒙古軍政府) was renamed in October 1937 as the Mongol United Autonomous Government (蒙古聯盟自治政府). On 1 September 1939, the predominantly Han Chinese governments of South Chahar Autonomous Government and North Shanxi Autonomous Government were merged with the Mongol Autonomous Government, creating the new Mengjiang United Autonomous Government (蒙疆聯合自治政府). All of these were headed by De Wang.

Mongol Local Autonomy Political Affairs Committee

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Political body of ethnic Mongols in the Chinese Republic.

Political body of ethnic Mongols in the Chinese Republic.

Demchugdongrub served as secretary-general, while Yondonwangchug held the chairmanship.

Gen. Yan Xishan

Yan Xishan

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Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China.

Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China.

Gen. Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan in the early 1920s, shortly after taking power in Shanxi.
Yan Xishan's soldiers in Liaozhou (now Zuoquan County) in 1925 during the war with Henan warlord Fan Zhongxiu.
Yan Xishan--"China's Next President".
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
Yan Xishan in 1947
During the siege of Taiyuan, Yan told foreign journalists that he and his followers would swallow cyanide pills before they let the PLA take Shanxi. Many of his followers committed suicide when Taiyuan fell.
Yan retired from public life in 1950. He spent much of his retirement writing, analyzing contemporary political issues and promoting Yan Xishan Thought.
Yan Xishan's tomb in Shilin District, Taipei.

Three months later the head of the Political Council, Prince De (Demchugdongrub), declared that he was the ruler of an independent Mongolia (Mengguguo), and organized an army with the aid of Japanese equipment and training.

Hohhot

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Capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.

Capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.

Wanbu Huayanjing Pagoda (Baita Pagoda) in Hohhot, 1942
People's Republic 10th Anniversary Parade in Hohhot
Map including Hohhot (labeled as KUEI-SUI) (AMS, 1963)
Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12
A sign in Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Manchurian at the Dazhao temple in Hohhot.
The sculpture of "Milk Capital" symbol
Great Mosque of Hohhot</TD>

During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De, who renamed Guisui "Blue City" (Hohhot;.

Li Shouxin

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Pro-Japanese commander in the Manchukuo Imperial Army and later the Mengjiang National Army.

Pro-Japanese commander in the Manchukuo Imperial Army and later the Mengjiang National Army.

Li Shouxin (center), Prince Demchugdongrub (left)

In late 1935 he commanded Manchukuo forces aiding Prince Demchugdongrub in seizing control of the six northern districts of Chahar.

Chahar Province

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Province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of Eastern Inner Mongolia.

Province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of Eastern Inner Mongolia.

From 1937 to 1945, it was occupied by Japan and made a part of Mengjiang, a Japanese-controlled region led by Mongol Prince Demchugdongrub of the Shilingol Alliance.