Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementiacognitive declinedementiasdementedantidementiaprogressive dementiaSevere Dementiaadvanced dementia
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is severe enough to affect daily functioning.wikipedia
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Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’s diseaseAlzheimer disease
The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes up 50% to 70% of cases.
It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia.

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Lewy body diseaseLewy body dementiaDLB
Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), dementia with Lewy bodies (15%), and frontotemporal dementia.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition, and movement.

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseCJDcreutzfeldt-jakob syndrome
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, HIV, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.
Later symptoms include dementia, involuntary movements, blindness, weakness, and coma.

Ageing

agingageoctogenarian
A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging.
Dementia becomes more common with age.

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

communicating hydrocephalusHakim's triadHydrocephalus without obstruction associated with normal CSF pressure
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, HIV, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.
The disease presents in a classic triad of symptoms, which are urinary incontinence, dementia, and gait deviations.

Antipsychotic

antipsychoticsneurolepticneuroleptics
Treatment of behavioral problems with antipsychotics is common but not usually recommended, due to the limited benefit and the side effects, including an increased risk of death.
They are not recommended for dementia or insomnia unless other treatments have not worked.

Parkinson's disease dementia

Dementia
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, HIV, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is dementia that is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Mild cognitive impairment

mild cognitive impairment (MCI)MCImild cognitive impairment (MCI)
The earliest stage of dementia is called mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
It may occur as a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia.

Donepezil

Aricept
Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disorder.
In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration also approved donepezil for treatment of mild, moderate and severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease.

Mini–Mental State Examination

Mini-Mental State Examinationmini mental state examinationMini Mental State Exam
The mini mental state examination is one commonly used cognitive test.
It is commonly used in medicine and allied health to screen for dementia.

Apathy

apatheticindifferenceindifferent
Apathy may be a sign of more specific mental problems such as schizophrenia or dementia.

Anomic aphasia

anomiaamnesic aphasiadysnomia
The most common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are short-term memory loss and word-finding difficulties.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease have speech problems linked to dementia or progressive aphasias, which can include anomia.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

acetylcholinesterase inhibitorscholinesterase inhibitorsacetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor
Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disorder.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. People with vascular dementia tend to have risk factors for disease of the blood vessels, such as tobacco use, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, high cholesterol or diabetes, or other signs of vascular disease such as a previous heart attack or angina.
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

Atrial fibrillation

atrial fibrilationparoxysmal atrial fibrillationAtrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
People with vascular dementia tend to have risk factors for disease of the blood vessels, such as tobacco use, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, high cholesterol or diabetes, or other signs of vascular disease such as a previous heart attack or angina.
The disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, dementia, and stroke.

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
The part of the brain most affected by Alzheimer's is the hippocampus.
In Alzheimer's disease (and other forms of dementia), the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; short-term memory loss and disorientation are included among the early symptoms.

Frontotemporal dementia

fronto-temporal dementiafrontotemporal degenerationFrontotemporal dementia (FTD)
Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), dementia with Lewy bodies (15%), and frontotemporal dementia.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.

Syphilis

syphilitictertiary syphilissecondary syphilis
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, HIV, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.
Meningovascular syphilis typically presents with apathy and seizures, and general paresis with dementia and tabes dorsalis.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity.

Hearing loss

deafdeafnesshearing impairment
Hearing loss may also be associated with dementia.
Hearing loss is associated with Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

supranuclear palsysupranuclear palsy, progressiveProgressive Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a form of FTD that is characterized by problems with eye movements.
The condition leads to symptoms including loss of balance, slowing of movement, difficulty moving the eyes, and dementia.

Caregiver

caregiverscarerscaregiving
These diseases have a significant effect on caregivers.
This symptom is common in people after a stroke, people with Parkinson's disease or who have multiple sclerosis, and people with dementia.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
Parkinsonism is the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, which include tremor, rigid muscles, and a face without emotion.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD, especially with the subset of PD cases with dementia known as Parkinson's disease dementia.

Delirium

deliriousconfusionAcute confusional state
Encephalopathy or delirium may develop relatively slowly and resemble dementia.
Without careful assessment and history, delirium can easily be confused with a number of psychiatric disorders or chronic organic brain syndromes because of many overlapping signs and symptoms in common with dementia, depression, psychosis, etc. Delirium may manifest from a baseline of existing mental illness, baseline intellectual disability, or dementia, without being due to any of these problems.

Vitamin B12 deficiency

vitamin B 12 deficiencyVitamin B 12 B 12
Causes of easily reversible dementia include hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 deficiency, Lyme disease, and neurosyphilis.