Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementiacognitive declinedementiasdementedantidementiaprogressive dementiaadvanced dementiacaducity
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.wikipedia
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Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’sAlzheimer’s disease
The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes up 50% to 70% of cases.
It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia.

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Lewy body dementialewy body diseaseDLB
Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), Lewy body dementia (15%), and frontotemporal dementia.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

CJDvariant Creutzfeldt–Jakob diseaseCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others.
Later dementia, involuntary movements, blindness, weakness, and coma occur.

Ageing

agingageoctogenarian
A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging.
Dementia becomes more common with age.

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

communicating hydrocephalushydrocephalus, normal pressurenormal CSF pressure
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others.
The disease presents in a classic triad of symptoms, which are urinary incontinence, dementia, and gait disturbance.

Antipsychotic

antipsychoticsneurolepticneuroleptics
Treatment of behavioral problems with antipsychotics is common but not usually recommended due to the little benefit and side effects, including an increased risk of death.
They are also associated with increased mortality in elderly people with dementia.

Parkinson's disease dementia

Dementia
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others.
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is dementia that is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

cholinesterase inhibitoranticholinesterasecholinesterase inhibitors
Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disorder.
To treat Alzheimer's disease, the Lewy body dementias and Parkinson's disease. In these neurodegenerative conditions AChEIs are primarily used to treat the cognitive (memory and learning deficits mostly) symptoms of dementia. These symptoms are attenuated due to the role of acetylcholine in cognition in the CNS. There is some evidence to suggest that AChEIs may attenuate psychotic symptoms (especially visual hallucinations) in Parkinson's disease.

Mild cognitive impairment

mild cognitive impairment (MCI)MCImild cognitive impairment (MCI)
The earliest stage of dementia is called mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
It may occur as a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia.

Donepezil

Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disorder.
In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration also approved donepezil for treatment of mild, moderate and severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease.

Mini–Mental State Examination

mini-mental state examinationmini mental state examinationcopyright violation
The mini mental state examination is one commonly used cognitive test.
It is commonly used in medicine and allied health to screen for dementia.

Apathy

apatheticindifferenceindifferent
Apathy
Apathy may be a sign of more specific mental problems such as schizophrenia or dementia.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. People with vascular dementia tend to have risk factors for disease of the blood vessels, such as tobacco use, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, high cholesterol or diabetes, or other signs of vascular disease such as a previous heart attack or angina.
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

Syphilis

syphilitictertiary syphilissyphilology
Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others.
Meningovascular syphilis typically presents with apathy and seizures, and general paresis with dementia and tabes dorsalis.

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
People with vascular dementia tend to have risk factors for disease of the blood vessels, such as tobacco use, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, high cholesterol or diabetes, or other signs of vascular disease such as a previous heart attack or angina.
The disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, dementia, and stroke.

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
The part of the brain most affected by Alzheimer's is the hippocampus.
In Alzheimer's disease (and other forms of dementia), the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; short-term memory loss and disorientation are included among the early symptoms.

Frontotemporal dementia

fronto-temporal dementiaFrontotemporal dementia (FTD)Dementia, frontotemporal
Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), Lewy body dementia (15%), and frontotemporal dementia.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity.

Caregiver

caregiverscarerscaregiving
These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's caregivers.
This symptom is common in people after a stroke, people with Parkinson's disease or who have multiple sclerosis, and people with dementia.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson diseaseParkinson’s disease
Parkinsonism is the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, which includes tremor, rigid muscles, and a face without emotion.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD, especially with the subset of PD cases with dementia known as Parkinson's disease dementia.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

supranuclear palsysupranuclear palsy, progressiveParkinson's disease with hyperextension
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a form of dementia that is characterized by problems with eye movements.
The condition leads to symptoms including loss of balance, slowing of movemen t, difficulty moving the eyes, and dementia.

Neurological disorder

neurological disordersneurological diseaseneurological
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Delirium and dementia such as Alzheimer's disease

Vitamin B12 deficiency

vitamin B 12 deficiencyVitamin B12B 12
There are four main causes of easily reversible dementia: hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 deficiency, Lyme disease, and neurosyphillis.
3) Neurological symptoms: Sensory or motor deficiencies (absent reflexes, diminished vibration or soft touch sensation), subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, seizures, or even symptoms of dementia and or other psychiatric symptoms may be present. Deficiency symptoms in children include developmental delay, regression, irritability, involuntary movements and hypotonia.

Delirium

deliriouscognitive impairmentsconfusion
On the other hand, encephalopathy or delirium may develop relatively slowly and resemble dementia.
Without careful assessment and history, delirium can easily be confused with a number of psychiatric disorders or long term organic brain syndromes, because many of the signs and symptoms of delirium are conditions also present in dementia, depression, and psychosis.

Dentatorubral–pallidoluysian atrophy

dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophydentatorubropallidoluysian atrophydentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy
Late adult-onset DRPLA is characterized by ataxia, choreoathetosis and dementia.