A report on Dementia and Neurofibrillary tangle

Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s
Microscopy of a cell with neurofibrillary tangles (marked by arrows).
Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s
Diagram of how microtubules disintegrate with Alzheimer's disease
A drawing of a woman diagnosed with dementia
Overview of RNA interference.
A drawing of an old man diagnosed with senile dementia
Brain atrophy in severe Alzheimer's
Donepezil
Deaths per million persons in 2012 due to dementia
Disability-adjusted life year for Alzheimer and other dementias per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
Woman with dementia being cared for at home in Ethiopia

The human mutant P301 tau gene is associated with frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, another tauopathy associated with NFTs.

- Neurofibrillary tangle

High proportions of viral-associated proteins in amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) confirm the involvement of HSV-1 in Alzheimer's disease pathology.

- Dementia
Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Drawing comparing a normal aged brain (left) and the brain of a person with Alzheimer's. Characteristics that separate the two are pointed out.

Alzheimer's disease

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Neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and progressively worsens.

Neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and progressively worsens.

Drawing comparing a normal aged brain (left) and the brain of a person with Alzheimer's. Characteristics that separate the two are pointed out.
Stages of atrophy in Alzheimer's.
A normal brain on the left and a late-stage Alzheimer's brain on the right
In Alzheimer's disease, changes in tau protein lead to the disintegration of microtubules in brain cells.
Histopathologic images of Alzheimer's disease, in the CA3 area of the hippocampus, showing an amyloid plaque (top right), neurofibrillary tangles (bottom left), and granulovacuolar degeneration bodies (bottom center)
PET scan of the brain of a person with Alzheimer's disease showing a loss of function in the temporal lobe
Cognitive tests such as the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) can help in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. In this test instructions are given to copy drawings like the one shown, remember some words, read, and subtract numbers serially.
Intellectual activities such as playing chess or regular social interaction have been linked to a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease in epidemiological studies, although no causal relationship has been found.
Three-dimensional molecular model of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease symptoms
Molecular structure of memantine, a medication approved for advanced Alzheimer's disease symptoms
Alois Alzheimer's patient Auguste Deter in 1902. Hers was the first described case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease.
Self-portrait of artist William Utermohlen, created after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis

It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia.

The disease process is largely associated with amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and loss of neuronal connections in the brain.

Amyloid beta immunostaining showing amyloid plaques (brown).

Amyloid plaques

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Amyloid plaques (also known as neuritic plaques, Aβ plaques or senile plaques) are extracellular deposits of the amyloid beta (Aβ) protein mainly in the grey matter of the brain.

Amyloid plaques (also known as neuritic plaques, Aβ plaques or senile plaques) are extracellular deposits of the amyloid beta (Aβ) protein mainly in the grey matter of the brain.

Amyloid beta immunostaining showing amyloid plaques (brown).
Two amyloid plaques from the brain of a patient with Alzheimer's disease. In this photomicrograph, neurites are darkly stained with the Naoumenko-Feigin silver method, and the pink elements (including the plaque cores) are stained with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) counterstain. The bar is 20 microns (0.02 mm) in length.

Some plaques occur in the brain as a result of senescence (aging), but large numbers of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease.

In 1898, Emil Redlich reported plaques in three patients, two of whom had clinically verified dementia.

A person with progressive dementia, ataxia, and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing, abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected. A sagittal view of the CT/MRI scan shows atrophy of the midbrain, with preservation of the volume of the pons. This appearance has been called the "hummingbird sign" or "penguin sign". Also, atrophy of the tectum is seen, particularly the superior colliculi. These findings suggest the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

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Late-onset degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.

Late-onset degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.

A person with progressive dementia, ataxia, and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing, abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected. A sagittal view of the CT/MRI scan shows atrophy of the midbrain, with preservation of the volume of the pons. This appearance has been called the "hummingbird sign" or "penguin sign". Also, atrophy of the tectum is seen, particularly the superior colliculi. These findings suggest the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Dementia symptoms are also initially seen in about one in five cases of frontotemporal dementia.

The neurons display neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are clumps of tau protein, a normal part of a brain cell's internal structural skeleton.