Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocraticallydemocratic governmentdemocratic processdemocratic societydemocratic theorydemocratic systemdemocratic valuesdemocrat
Democracy ( dēmokratía, literally "rule by people") is a form of government in which the people have the authority to choose their governing legislation.wikipedia
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Direct democracy

direct democraticdirectdirect legislation
In a direct democracy, the people directly deliberate and decide on legislature.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
In a representative democracy the people elect representatives to deliberate and decide on legislature, such as in parliamentary or presidential democracy.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican government in which a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

Supermajority

absolute majoritytwo-thirds majorityqualified majority
Others are supermajority and consensus.
A supermajority in a democracy can help to prevent a small majority from eroding fundamental rights of a large minority.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
Republics, though often associated with democracy because of the shared principle of rule by consent of the governed, are not necessarily democracies, as republicanism does not specify how the people are to rule.
The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied.

Liquid democracy

Delegative DemocracyNon-representative democracy‘proxy representatives’
Liquid democracy combines elements of these two basic types.
Liquid democracy, also known as delegative democracy is a form of democracy whereby an electorate has the option of vesting voting power in delegates rather than voting directly themselves.

Political egalitarianism

equalitypolitical equalitypolitical justice
Some cornerstones of these issues are freedom of assembly and speech, inclusiveness and equality, membership, consent, voting, right to life and minority rights.
A founding principle of various forms of democracy, political egalitarianism was an idea which was supported by Thomas Jefferson and it is a concept similar to moral reciprocity and legal equality.

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity.
Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families (called gentes) monopolised the main magistracies.

Consensus democracy

consensusconsensus decision makingconsensus-oriented
Others are supermajority and consensus.
Consensus democracy is the application of consensus decision-making to the process of legislation in a democracy.

Western world

WesternWestthe West
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity.
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization—Greece having heavily influenced Rome—the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science, aesthetics and art, building designs and proportions, architecture; the latter due to its influence on law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering and religion.

Dictatorship

dictatorialdictatorshipsdictator
Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
According to other definitions, democracies are regimes in which "those who govern are selected through contested elections"; therefore dictatorships are "not democracies".

Pluralism (political philosophy)

pluralismpolitical pluralismpluralistic
The term "democracy" is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, which is a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism; equality before the law; the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances; due process; civil liberties; human rights; and elements of civil society outside the government.
While not all political pluralists advocate for a pluralist democracy, this is most common as democracy is often viewed as the most fair and effective way to moderate between the discrete values.

Republicanism

republicanrepublicansrepublican government
Republics, though often associated with democracy because of the shared principle of rule by consent of the governed, are not necessarily democracies, as republicanism does not specify how the people are to rule.
Both Plato and Aristotle identified three forms of government: democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy.

Legislature

legislativeLegislative powerlegislative branch
In a direct democracy, the people directly deliberate and decide on legislature.
In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.

E-democracy

digital democracyElectronic direct democracyelectronic democracy
In some countries, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and internet democracy are considered important to ensure that voters are well informed, enabling them to vote according to their own interests.
E-democracy (a combination of the words electronic and democracy), also known as Digital Democracy or Internet democracy, incorporates 21st-century information and communications technology to promote democracy, such technologies include civic technology and government technology.

History of democracy

democratic movementdemocraticdominance of democracy
Retrospectively different polity, outside of declared democracies, have been described as proto-democratic (see History of democracy).
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.

Political freedom

freedomfreedomsfree
In some countries, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and internet democracy are considered important to ensure that voters are well informed, enabling them to vote according to their own interests. No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.

Classical Athens

AthensAthenianAthenians
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy (ἀριστοκρατία, aristokratía), meaning "rule of an elite".
It is widely referred to as the cradle of Western Civilization, and the birthplace of democracy, largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then-known European continent.

Separation of powers

checks and balancesbranches of governmentdivision of powers
In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute.
John Calvin (1509–1564) favoured a system of government that divided political power between democracy and aristocracy (mixed government).

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
The term "democracy" first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought in the city-state of Athens during classical antiquity.
A center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans.

Constitution of India

Indian ConstitutionConstitutionconstitutional
In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review.
The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity.

Judicial independence

independent judiciaryindependence of the judiciaryindependent
In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence.
It serves as a foundation for the rule of law and democracy.

Sortition

drawing of lotsDemarchylot
Athenian democracy took the form of a direct democracy, and it had two distinguishing features: the random selection of ordinary citizens to fill the few existing government administrative and judicial offices, and a legislative assembly consisting of all Athenian citizens.
In ancient Athenian democracy, sortition was the traditional and primary method for appointing political officials, and its use was regarded as a principal characteristic of democracy.

Larry Diamond

Diamond, Larry
According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections; the active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life; protection of the human rights of all citizens; a rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.
He has published extensively in the fields of foreign policy, foreign aid, and democracy.

Democratic republic

republican democracydemocratic republicanrepublic
However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.

Aristocracy

aristocraticaristocrataristocrats
The term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy (ἀριστοκρατία, aristokratía), meaning "rule of an elite".
Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Xenophon and the Spartans considered Aristocracy (the ideal form of rule by the few) to be inherently better than the ideal form of rule by the many (Democracy), but they also considered the corrupted form of Aristocracy (Oligarchy) to be worse than the corrupted form of Democracy (Mob Rule).