A report on Democratic Kampuchea

Location of Democratic Kampuchea
The flag of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), the political arm of the Khmer Rouge
Location of Democratic Kampuchea
Administrative zones of Democratic Kampuchea
The roundel of Cambodia (1976–1979)
Remains of victims of the Khmer Rouge in the Kampong Trach Cave, Kiry Seila Hills, Rung Tik (Water Cave) or Rung Khmao (Dead Cave).
Skulls of Genocide victims
Kang Kek Iew (Kaing Guek Eav or Duch) before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
Pol Pot in 1978
Khieu Samphan in 1978
Aerial surveillance showing two Khmer Rouge gunboats during the initial seizing of the SS Mayaguez
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum (formerly Security Prison S-21)
Skulls at Tuol Sleng
Choueng Ek Killing Field
Pol Pot meeting with Romanian Marxist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu during the latter's visit to Cambodia in 1978

One-party totalitarian state which encompassed modern-day Cambodia and existed from 1975 to 1979.

- Democratic Kampuchea

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The flag of Democratic Kampuchea, whose design was used by Khmer guerrillas since the 1950s with the building design varying.

Khmer Rouge

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The flag of Democratic Kampuchea, whose design was used by Khmer guerrillas since the 1950s with the building design varying.
Khmer Rouge bullet holes left at Angkor Wat temple
An aerial view of bomb craters in Cambodia
Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge of their victims
Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims
Remains of victims of the Khmer Rouge in the Kampong Trach Cave, Kiry Seila Hills, Rung Tik (Water Cave), or Rung Khmao (Dead Cave)
Photo images of the Ba Chúc massacre at a Vietnamese museum, as the massacre was one of the events that prompted the 1978 Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea
Khmer Rouge's activities in 1989–1990
Photos of the victims of the Khmer Rouge
Kang Kek Iew before the Cambodian Genocide Tribunal on 20 July 2009
Skulls displayed in the memorial tower

The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម, Khmêr Krâhâm ; ) is the name that was popularly given to members of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.

Sihanouk in 1983

Norodom Sihanouk

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Cambodian statesman, Sangkum and FUNCINPEC politician, film director, and composer who led Cambodia in various capacities throughout his long career, most often as both King and Prime Minister of Cambodia.

Cambodian statesman, Sangkum and FUNCINPEC politician, film director, and composer who led Cambodia in various capacities throughout his long career, most often as both King and Prime Minister of Cambodia.

Sihanouk in 1983
Meeting in Beijing in 1965: (from left) Mao Zedong, Peng Zhen, Sihanouk, Liu Shaoqi
Carlos P. Garcia, the then-Vice President of the Philippines in 1956 with Sihanouk
Indian Defence Minister V. K. Krishna Menon is seen pictured with Sihanouk
Sihanouk with US President John F. Kennedy in New York City on 25 September 1961
Sihanouk in 1967
Sihanouk (left) visiting Romania in 1972, with Romanian President Nicolae Ceaușescu
Sihanouk (right) with his son, Prince Norodom Ranariddh, on an ANS inspection tour during the 1980s
US President Ronald Reagan is seen with Sihanouk in 1988
King Sihanouk meeting with US ambassador Kenneth M. Quinn in March 1996 at the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh
King-father Sihanouk and Queen-Mother Monineath in 2011
King-father Norodom Sihanouk's funeral pyre
A billboard sign commemorating King-father Sihanouk
Norodom Sihanouk Memorial in Phnom Penh
Sihanouk's spouse, Queen-Mother Norodom Monineath, and their son King Norodom Sihamoni photographed at Sihanouk's funeral. To the extreme left is Sihanouk's half-brother, Prince Norodom Sirivudh.

During his lifetime, Cambodia was under various regimes, from French colonial rule (until 1953), an independent kingdom (1953–1970), a republic (1970–75), the Khmer Rouge regime (1975–79), another communist regime (1979–93), to finally another kingdom (from 1993).

Cambodia

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Country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia, spanning an area of 181035 km2, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

Country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia, spanning an area of 181035 km2, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

Glazed stoneware dating back to the 12th century
Khmer army going to war against the Cham, from a relief on the Bayon
A map of Indochina in 1760
Norodom Sihanouk and Mao Zedong in 1956
Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge of their victims.
Choeung Ek, a known site of mass grave for genocide victims during the Khmer Rouge era
Antigovernment protests in support of opposition party CNRP took place in Cambodia following the 2013 general election.
Geographic map of Cambodia
Regional map of Cambodia
Köppen climate classification map of Cambodia
Macaques at Phnom Pros, Kampong Cham Province
Waterfall at Phnom Kulen
Prey Lang Forest
Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia
Cambodian foreign minister Prak Sokhonn meets with U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken in Washington, D.C., 13 May 2022.
Prime minister Hun Sen with Russian president Vladimir Putin in Moscow, 19 May 2016.
Royal Cambodian Army officers marching
Left to right: Senate President Say Chhum, National Assembly President Heng Samrin and Prime Minister Hun Sen, on Independence Day, 9 November 2019.
Cambodia's deputy opposition leader Kem Sokha (left) has been arrested in September 2017 while opposition leader Sam Rainsy (right) has lived in exile since November 2015
Real GPD per capita development of Cambodia
A proportional representation of Cambodia exports, 2019
The Cambodian position on the Human Development Index, 1970–2010
Food stands in Siem Reap.
Paddy field in Siem Reap Province
Farmers harvesting rice in Battambang Province
Cambodian Exports Treemap in 2017.
Every year, nearly 2.6 million tourists visit Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia.
National Highway 4
Phnom Penh airport shuttle train
An ethnic map of Cambodia
Cambodian couple wearing traditional wedding outfit (Sompot, Sbai, Chong Kben).
Pchum Ben, also known as "Ancestors Day", is an important religious festival celebrated by Khmer Buddhists.
Cambodian medical students watching a surgery operation
The Institute of Foreign Languages of the Royal University of Phnom Penh
The 19th-century illustration tale of Vorvong & Sorvong
Boat racing during Bon Om Touk
Sinn Sisamouth, a famous Cambodian singer
Hun Sen and ASEAN leaders with U.S. President Joe Biden at the White House during the U.S.–ASEAN Summit, 13 May 2022.

The Khmer Rouge ruled the country and carried out the Cambodian genocide from 1975 until 1979, when they were ousted in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.

Pol Pot

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Prek Sbauv, the village where Pol Pot was born and spent his early years
Sâr arrived in Paris, France (pictured in 1960).
In Paris, Pol Pot was inspired by the writings of Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin (pictured together in 1949) on how to conduct a revolution and build a Marxist–Leninist-governed state.
King Sihanouk disbanded the Cambodian government and National Assembly before securing independence from French colonial rule in 1953.
The flag of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, a group whose members were informally known as the "Khmer Rouge"
In 1970, a coup led to Lon Nol taking control of Cambodia and instituting a right-wing, pro-U.S. administration.
After Vietnamese Marxist–Leninist forces invaded Cambodia to overthrow Lon Nol's government, the U.S. (forces pictured) also sent in its military to bolster his administration
Uniforms worn by the Khmer Rouge during their period of control
View of Phnom Penh from a US helicopter, 12 April 1975
Pol Pot's government held its early meetings in the Silver Pagoda, which later served as Pol Pot's home
The flag of Democratic Kampuchea
The Tuol Sleng School, known as S-21, where those regarded as enemies of the government were tortured and killed
Pol Pot meeting with Romanian Marxist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu during the latter's visit to Cambodia in 1978
Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims
Mass grave in Choeung Ek
Busts of Pol Pot were produced in anticipation of a cult of personality ultimately never realized. This example is displayed in the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum.
In 1979, Khieu Samphan (pictured here in 2011) replaced Pol Pot as Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea
Pol Pot's grave in the Anlong Veng District of Oddar Meanchey Province
Graffiti commemorating Pol Pot in Sundsvall, Sweden
After Vietnamese Marxist–Leninist forces invaded Cambodia to overthrow Lon Nol's government, the U.S. (forces pictured) also sent in its military to bolster his administration

Pol Pot (born Saloth Sâr; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary, dictator, and politician who ruled Cambodia as Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea between 1976 and 1979.

Skulls at the Choeung Ek memorial in Cambodia

Cambodian genocide

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The systematic persecution and killing of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge under the leadership of Communist Party of Kampuchea general secretary Pol Pot, who radically pushed Cambodia towards an entirely self-sufficient agrarian socialist society.

The systematic persecution and killing of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge under the leadership of Communist Party of Kampuchea general secretary Pol Pot, who radically pushed Cambodia towards an entirely self-sufficient agrarian socialist society.

Skulls at the Choeung Ek memorial in Cambodia
Skulls at the Choeung Ek memorial in Cambodia
Pol Pot in 1978
Mao Zedong, Peng Zhen, Norodom Sihanouk and Liu Shaoqi (1965).
Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge of their victims.
A Chankiri Tree. The sign reads "Chankiri Tree against which executioners beat children"
Impact of the genocide on the country's average life expectancy
The tribunal's main building with the court room
Tuol Sleng genocide museum
Photo from genocide museum
Tuol Sleng
Tuol Sleng
Genocide museum
In the museum

In 1976, the Khmer Rouge renamed the country Democratic Kampuchea.

Communist Party of Kampuchea

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Communist party in Cambodia.

Communist party in Cambodia.

The party was underground for most of its existence and took power in the country in April 1975 and established the state known as Democratic Kampuchea.

Vietnamese soldiers entering Phnom Penh in January 1979

Cambodian–Vietnamese War

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Vietnamese soldiers entering Phnom Penh in January 1979
Pol Pot was the leader of the Khmer Rouge. Following the Khmer Rouge victory on 17 April 1975, he became Premier of Democratic Kampuchea and led the country in its war against Vietnam.
The emblem of the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation
Skulls of victims of the Ba Chúc Massacre
A Soviet ship with humanitarian aid, Sihanoukville, Cambodia, November 1979
Camps on the Thai-Cambodia border hostile to the PRK, 1979–1984. KPNLF camps shown in black.
Mountains along the Cambodian-Thai Border north of the road between Serei Saophoan and Aranyaprathet. These were one of the areas where Khmer Rouge fighters hid at the time of the K5 Plan.
10 years of the Vietnamese occupation of Kampuchea officially ended on 26 September 1989, when the last remaining contingent of Vietnamese troops were pulled out. The departing Vietnamese soldiers received much publicity and fanfare as they moved through Phnom Penh, the capital of Kampuchea.
The Cambodia–Vietnam Friendship Monument was constructed to commemorate the ousting of the Khmer Rouge government on 7 January 1979, by Vietnamese and KUFNS forces.

The Cambodian–Vietnamese War (សង្គ្រាមកម្ពុជា-វៀតណាម, Chiến tranh Campuchia–Việt Nam), known in Vietnam as the Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border (Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam), and by Cambodian nationalists as the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia (ការឈ្លានពានរបស់វៀតណាមមកកម្ពុជា), was an armed conflict between Democratic Kampuchea, controlled by the Khmer Rouge, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

U.S. tanks entering a town in Cambodia in 1970.

Cambodian Civil War

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Civil war in Cambodia fought between the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (known as the Khmer Rouge, supported by North Vietnam and the Viet Cong) against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia and, after October 1970, the Khmer Republic, which had succeeded the kingdom (both supported by the United States and South Vietnam).

Civil war in Cambodia fought between the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (known as the Khmer Rouge, supported by North Vietnam and the Viet Cong) against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia and, after October 1970, the Khmer Republic, which had succeeded the kingdom (both supported by the United States and South Vietnam).

U.S. tanks entering a town in Cambodia in 1970.
U.S. tanks entering a town in Cambodia in 1970.
Meeting in Beijing: Mao Zedong (left), Prince Sihanouk (center), and Liu Shaoqi (right)
Areas under government control, August 1970
A memorial to the civil war in Siem Reap, Cambodia, with a rusted wreck of a Soviet-built T-54 main battle tank used during the war. Large numbers of T-54s were used by Cambodia during and after the bloody fighting of the conflict between 1970 and 1975, with many such wrecks (in various states of abandonment and disrepair) scattered all over the country today.
Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia visiting Communist Romania in 1972.
The final offensive against Phnom Penh in April 1975
Saukham Khoy, successor to Lon Nol as President of the Khmer Republic arrives on board the USS Okinawa (LPH-3) on 12 April 1975 after being evacuated from Phnom Penh.

After five years of savage fighting, the Republican government was defeated on 17 April 1975 when the victorious Khmer Rouge proclaimed the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea.

Samphan in 2014

Khieu Samphan

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Samphan in 2014
Khieu Samphan at a public hearing before the Pre-Trial Chamber in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia on 28 June 2011

Khieu Samphan (ខៀវ សំផន; born 28 July 1931) is a Cambodian former communist politician and economist who was the chairman of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979.

Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea

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Location of Kampuchea, occupied by Vietnam
Prince Norodom Sihanouk, for many the recognised leader of Cambodia, pictured with US President Ronald Reagan in the Oval Office, 11 October 1988.
Location of Kampuchea, occupied by Vietnam
Camps on the Thai-Cambodian border hostile to the People's Republic of Kampuchea, 1979–1984

The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK; រដ្ឋាភិបាលចំរុះកម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ, Roathaphibal Chamroh Kampuchea Pracheathipatai), renamed in 1990 to the National Government of Cambodia (NGC; រដ្ឋាភិបាលជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា, Roathaphibal Cheat Ney Kampuchea), was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions, namely Prince Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (PDK; often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime.