Democratic Kampuchea

CambodiaKampucheaKhmer RougeregimeKhmer Rouge regimeKingdom of Cambodia1975–1979CambodianCommunist Cambodiacommunist rule
Kampuchea, officially from 5 January 1976 Democratic Kampuchea (DK; កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ; Kâmpŭchéa Prâcheathippadey; Kampuchéa démocratique), also described as the Genocidal Regime, was the Cambodian state under one-party Marxist-Leninist totalitarian rule that existed between 1975 and 1979.wikipedia
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Khmer Rouge

CambodiaCambodiancommunist
It was controlled by the Khmer Rouge (KR), the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), and was founded when KR forces defeated the Khmer Republic of Lon Nol in 1975.
The Khmer Rouge (, ; ខ្មែរក្រហម ; "Red Khmers") was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.

Cambodia

Kingdom of CambodiaKampucheaKhmer
Kampuchea, officially from 5 January 1976 Democratic Kampuchea (DK; កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ; Kâmpŭchéa Prâcheathippadey; Kampuchéa démocratique), also described as the Genocidal Regime, was the Cambodian state under one-party Marxist-Leninist totalitarian rule that existed between 1975 and 1979.
Led by Pol Pot, they changed the official name of the country to Democratic Kampuchea.

Cambodian Civil War

Cambodiacivil war1970-75 Cambodian Civil War
It was controlled by the Khmer Rouge (KR), the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), and was founded when KR forces defeated the Khmer Republic of Lon Nol in 1975.
After five years of savage fighting, the Republican government was defeated on 17 April 1975 when the victorious Khmer Rouge proclaimed the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea.

Norodom Sihanouk

SihanoukPrince SihanoukKing Norodom Sihanouk
In 1970, Premier Lon Nol and the National Assembly deposed Norodom Sihanouk as the head of state.
During his lifetime Cambodia was variously called the French Protectorate of Cambodia (until 1953), the Kingdom of Cambodia (1953–70), the Khmer Republic (1970–75), Democratic Kampuchea (1975–79), the People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979–93), and again the Kingdom of Cambodia (from 1993).

Pol Pot

Saloth SarPaul's Pot
In actual fact, all power belonged to the Standing Committee of CPK, the membership of which comprised the Secretary and Prime Minister Pol Pot, his Deputy Secretary Nuon Chea and seven others. In addition, because many of the top KR officials such as Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan and Kang Kek Iew (also known as Duch) were educators and intellectuals, they were being unable to connect with the masses and were alienated upon their return to Cambodia, further fuelling their radical thought.
Pol Pot (born Saloth Sâr; 25 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian politician who led Cambodia as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea between 1976 and 1979.

Communist Party of Kampuchea

AngkarKhmer People's Revolutionary PartyWorkers Party of Kampuchea
It was controlled by the Khmer Rouge (KR), the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), and was founded when KR forces defeated the Khmer Republic of Lon Nol in 1975.
The party was underground for most of its existence and took power in the country in 1975 and established the state known as Democratic Kampuchea.

Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea

CGDKKampuchea, DemocraticNational Government of Cambodia
In June 1982, the Khmer Rouge formed the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea with two non-communist guerrilla factions, which retained international recognition.
The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK; រដ្ឋាភិបាលចំរុះកម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ, Odthaphibeal Chamrouh Kampouchea Brachathibtey), renamed to the National Government of Cambodia (NGC; រដ្ឋាភិបាលជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា, Rodthaphibeal Cheate nei Kampouchea) from 1990, was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions, namely Prince Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (PDK; often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime.

Kampuchean People's Representative Assembly

President of the Standing Committee
The Constitution provided for a Kampuchean People's Representative Assembly (KPRA) to be elected by secret ballot in direct general elections and a State Praesidium to be selected and appointed every five years by the KPRA.
The Kampuchean People's Representative Assembly was the official name of the unicameral legislature of Cambodia during the Democratic Kampuchea period.

One-party state

one-partyone-one-party system
Kampuchea, officially from 5 January 1976 Democratic Kampuchea (DK; កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ; Kâmpŭchéa Prâcheathippadey; Kampuchéa démocratique), also described as the Genocidal Regime, was the Cambodian state under one-party Marxist-Leninist totalitarian rule that existed between 1975 and 1979.

Kampuchean Revolutionary Army

Revolutionary Army of Kampuchearevolutionary fighters
During the Democratic Kampuchea days, the 68,000-member Khmer Rouge-dominated CPNLAF (Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces) force, which completed its conquest of Phnom Penh, Cambodia in April 1975, was renamed the RAK (Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea).
The Kampuchean Revolutionary Army was the Armed Forces of Democratic Kampuchea.

Khmer Republic

CambodiagovernmentRepublican
Instead of provinces, Democratic Kampuchea was divided into geographic zones, derived from divisions established by the Khmer Rouge when they fought against the ill-fated Khmer Republic led by General Lon Nol.
The Republic eventually fell on 17 April 1975, when the Khmer Rouge took Phnom Penh and briefly restored the Kingdom of Cambodia before renaming itself Democratic Kampuchea in January 1976.

Nuon Chea

Long Bunruot
In actual fact, all power belonged to the Standing Committee of CPK, the membership of which comprised the Secretary and Prime Minister Pol Pot, his Deputy Secretary Nuon Chea and seven others.
In Democratic Kampuchea, he was generally known as "Brother Number Two."

Khieu Samphan

In addition, because many of the top KR officials such as Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan and Kang Kek Iew (also known as Duch) were educators and intellectuals, they were being unable to connect with the masses and were alienated upon their return to Cambodia, further fuelling their radical thought.
Khieu Samphan (ខៀវ សំផន; born 28 July 1931) is a former Cambodian communist politician who was the chairman of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979.

Kang Kek Iew

Comrade DuchKhang Khek IeuDuch
In addition, because many of the top KR officials such as Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan and Kang Kek Iew (also known as Duch) were educators and intellectuals, they were being unable to connect with the masses and were alienated upon their return to Cambodia, further fuelling their radical thought.
Kang Kek Iew or Kaing Kek Iev, also romanized as Kaing Guek Eav, nom de guerre Comrade Duch or Deuch ; or Hang Pin, (born 17 November 1942) is a prisoner, war criminal and former leader in the Khmer Rouge movement, which ruled Democratic Kampuchea from 1975 to 1979.

Chinese Cambodian

ChineseChinese CambodiansSino-Khmer
Victims included such class enemies as rich capitalists, professionals, intellectuals, police and government employees (including most of Lon Nol's leadership), along with ethnic minorities such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Lao and Cham.
Following the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and the fall of Democratic Kampuchea, the new pro-Hanoi People's Republic of Kampuchea regime lifted some of the oppressive rules imposed on ethnic Chinese by the Khmer Rouge government.

Third Indochina War

Thus, prior to the KR's takeover of Phnom Penh in 1975 and the start of the Zero Years, Cambodia had already been involved in the Third Indochina War and tensions between Cambodia and Vietnam were growing due to differences in communist ideology and the incursion of Vietnamese military presence within Cambodian borders.

Khmer Rouge Killing Fields

Killing FieldsThe Killing FieldsCambodian Killing Fields
An unprecedented genocide campaign ensued that led to annihilation of about 25% of the country's population, with much of the killing being motivated by Khmer Rouge ideology which urged "disproportionate revenge" against rich and powerful oppressors.
In 1979, Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime; viewed as ending the genocide.

Cambodian genocide

Khmer Rouge genocideCambodiagenocide
Between 1975 and 1979, the state and its ruling Khmer Rouge regime was responsible for the deaths of millions of Cambodians through forced labour and genocide.
In 1976, the Khmer Rouge changed the name of the country to Democratic Kampuchea.

Military history of Cambodia

Armée Nationale SihanoukisteArmee Nationale SihanoukisteCPNLAF
During the Democratic Kampuchea days, the 68,000-member Khmer Rouge-dominated CPNLAF (Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces) force, which completed its conquest of Phnom Penh, Cambodia in April 1975, was renamed the RAK (Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea).
The 68,000 troops of Democratic Kampuchea were led by a small group of intellectuals, inspired by Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution in China who aimed to convert Cambodia into an agrarian Utopia.

First They Killed My Father

First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembersmemoirsof the same name
Memoirs from the second wave include Chanrithy Him's When Broken Glass Floats (published 2000), Loung Ung's First They Killed My Father (2000), Oni Vitandham's On the Wings of a White Horse (2005) and Kilong Ung's Golden Leaf (2009).
First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers is a 2000 non-fiction book written by Loung Ung, a Cambodian author and childhood survivor of Democratic Kampuchea.

People's Republic of Kampuchea

State of CambodiaCambodiaKampuchea
The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK; សាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតកម្ពុជា, Sathéaranakrâth Pracheameanit Kâmpŭchéa; République populaire du Kampuchéa) was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government.

Cambodian–Vietnamese War

Cambodian-Vietnamese WarVietnamese invasion of CambodiaVietnamese invasion
The KR lost control of most Cambodian territory to Vietnamese occupation. Only China, North Korea, Egypt, Albania, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam (until December 1977), Romania and Yugoslavia had diplomatic missions in Phnom Penh.
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, known in Vietnam as the Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border (Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam), was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
Conflict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, and the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge, eventually escalating into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaCommunist Romania
Only China, North Korea, Egypt, Albania, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam (until December 1977), Romania and Yugoslavia had diplomatic missions in Phnom Penh.
Following the Sino-Soviet split, Romania also maintained relations with China and North Korea as well as the Chinese-backed Khmer Rouge-ruled Democratic Kampuchea.

Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum

Tuol SlengS-21Tuol Sleng prison
One prison, Security Prison 21 (now the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum), held 17,000 people at one time or another, of whom only seven adults survived.
Women were sometimes raped by the interrogators, even though sexual abuse was against Democratic Kampuchea (DK) policy.