Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States (1829–1837) and the first Democratic president.
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Martin Van Buren was the eighth president of the United States (1837–1841) and the second Democratic president.
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
Senator Stephen A. Douglas
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland, the only president with non-consecutive terms
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Leaders of the Democratic Party during the first half of the 20th century on 14 June 1913: Secretary of State William J. Bryan, Josephus Daniels, President Woodrow Wilson, Breckinridge Long, William Phillips, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, 32nd and 33rd presidents of the United States (1933–1945; 1945–1953), featured on a campaign poster for the 1944 presidential election
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, 35th and 36th presidents of the United States (1961–1963, 1963–1969)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–1981), delivering the State of the Union Address in 1979
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), at The Pentagon in 1998
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Barack Obama speaking to College Democrats of America in 2007
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
President Barack Obama meeting with the Blue Dog Coalition in the State Dining Room of the White House in 2009
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Eleanor Roosevelt at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law at the White House on March 23, 2010
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Secretary of State John Kerry addressing delegates at the United Nations before signing the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Shirley Chisholm was the first major-party African American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Immigration Act of 1965 as Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and others look on
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Then-Senator Barack Obama shaking hands with an American soldier in Basra, Iraq in 2008
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meeting with President Barack Obama at Ben Gurion Airport in 2013
Self-identified Democrats (blue) versus self-identified Republicans (red) (January–June 2010 data)
Higher percentages of Democrats than Republicans are members of union households.
Elected at age 33, Jon Ossoff is currently the youngest member of the U.S. Senate.
Hillary Clinton was the first woman to be nominated for president by a major party.
Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg
Vice President Kamala Harris
Julián Castro served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
U.S. Senator Tammy Duckworth
Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
U.S. Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP ("Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

- Republican Party (United States)

Since the 1860s, its main political rival has been the Republican Party.

- Democratic Party (United States)

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2016 United States presidential election

The 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

The 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

The incumbent in 2016, Barack Obama. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 2017.
Campaign signs of third-party candidates Jill Stein and Gary Johnson, October 2016 in St. Johnsbury, Vermont
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A general election ballot, listing the presidential and vice presidential candidates
Trump campaigns in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2016
Clinton campaigns in Raleigh, North Carolina, October 22, 2016
President Barack Obama casting his vote early in Chicago on October 7, 2016
Vote margin swing by state 2012 to 2016. Only twelve states (as well as the District of Columbia and Nebraka's 2nd congressional district) shifted more Democratic. The large swing in Utah is mostly due to the votes for third candidate Evan McMullin and the 2012 candidacy of Utah's Mitt Romney.
Final polling averages for the 2016 election by state. Polls from lightly shaded states are older than September 1, 2016.
Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by vote distribution among states. The size of each state's pie chart is proportional to its number of electoral votes.
Results by county. Red denotes counties that went to Trump; blue denotes counties that went to Clinton.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
A discontinuous cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election
A continuous cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election
A discretized cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election using squares
A discretized cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election using hexagons
Results of election by congressional district, shaded by winning candidate's percentage of the vote
County swing from 2012 to 2016
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Johnson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Jill Stein
Results by state, shaded according to margin of victory

The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former secretary of state Hillary Clinton and U.S. senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, in what was considered one of the greatest upsets in American history.

Official portrait, 1993

Bill Clinton

American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

Official portrait, 1993
Clinton in Hot Springs High School's 1963 yearbook
Photo of Clinton at age 17 shaking hands with President John F. Kennedy at the White House in 1963
Clinton ran for president of the Student Council while attending the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University.
Results of the 1978 Arkansas gubernatorial election. Clinton won the counties in blue.
Newly elected Governor of Arkansas Bill Clinton meets with President Jimmy Carter, 1978
Governor and Mrs. Clinton attend the Dinner Honoring the Nation's Governors in the White House with President Ronald Reagan and first lady Nancy Reagan, 1987.
The Clintons in a White House Christmas portrait
1992 electoral vote results. Clinton won 370–168.
1996 electoral vote results. Clinton won 379–159.
Clinton and Vice President Al Gore on the South Lawn, August 10, 1993
Yitzhak Rabin, Clinton and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993
Clinton's coat of arms, granted by the Chief Herald of Ireland in 1995
Clinton's impeachment trial in 1999
Future president Donald Trump and Clinton shaking hands at Trump Tower, June 2000
Col. Paul Fletcher, USAF and Clinton speak before boarding Air Force One, November 4, 1999
Clinton shaking hands with Gerry Adams outside a business in East Belfast, November 30, 1995
Clinton plays the saxophone presented to him by Russian president Boris Yeltsin at a private dinner in Russia, January 13, 1994
Clinton during a briefing on Kosovo, March 31, 1999.
Clinton and Chinese president Jiang Zemin holding a joint press conference at the White House, October 29, 1997
Ruth Bader Ginsburg accepting her nomination to the Supreme Court from President Clinton, 1993
Clinton's approval ratings throughout his presidential career (Roper Center)
Clinton addressing the Parliament of Great Britain on November 29, 1995
Clinton and Monica Lewinsky on February 28, 1997
Clinton greets a Hurricane Katrina evacuee, September 5, 2005. In the background, second from the right, is then-Senator Barack Obama.
Former president George H. W. Bush and Clinton in the White House Library, January 2005
Clinton speaking at the 2008 Democratic National Convention
The state funeral of George H. W. Bush in December 2018
Clinton with then-President Barack Obama and Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett in July 2010
Clinton, his wife Hillary, and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New York City on September 29, 2014
Clinton campaigning at an election rally for his wife Hillary who was running for President of the United States, 2016
Clinton speaking at the 2016 Democratic National Convention
Secretary of Defense Cohen presents President Clinton the DoD Medal for Distinguished Public Service.
Bill Clinton statue in Ballybunion, erected to commemorate his 1998 golfing visit
Bill Clinton statue in Pristina, the capital of Kosovo
Former President Bill Clinton is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by then president Barack Obama.
Clinton during the signing of the Israel–Jordan peace treaty, with Yitzhak Rabin (left) and King Hussein of Jordan (right)

A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton became known as a New Democrat, as many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.

Clinton was elected president in the 1992 presidential election, defeating incumbent Republican president George H. W. Bush and independent businessman Ross Perot.

Official portrait, 2012

Barack Obama

American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

Official portrait, 2012
Stanley Armour Dunham, Ann Dunham, Maya Soetoro and Barack Obama, (L to R) mid-1970s in Honolulu
Barack Obama's school record in St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School. Obama was enrolled as "Barry Soetoro" (no. 1), and was wrongly recorded as an Indonesian citizen (no. 3) and a Muslim (no. 4).
Obama poses in the Green Room of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009
Obama playing in a pickup game on the White House basketball court, 2009
The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., January 2013
State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBank co-founder Milton Davis in 1998
Results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois; Obama won the counties in blue.
Official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate
Obama and U.S. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)
Obama on stage with wife and daughters just before announcing presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007
2008 electoral vote results. Obama won 365–173.
2012 electoral vote results. Obama won 332–206.
Obama takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2009
Obama delivers a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi on February 24, 2009.
Obama visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado Hospital, 2012.
The White House was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015.
Deficit and debt increases, 2001–2016
US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. president
Obama at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, Louisiana
Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010.
Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)
Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 1963–2015 (Source: JAMA)
June 4, 2009 − after his speech A New Beginning at Cairo University, U.S. President Obama participates in a roundtable interview in 2009 with among others Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti and Nahum Barnea.
Obama with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Hyderabad House in New Delhi, January 2015.
Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi at the White House, October 2016.
Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron during the 2010 G20 Toronto summit
Obama after a trilateral meeting with Afghan President Hamid Karzai (left) and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari (right), White House Cabinet Room, May 2009
Obama meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres in the Oval Office, May 2009
President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria and ISIS, September 29, 2015.
Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear in the White House Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation Room
Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013.
President Obama meeting with Cuban President Raúl Castro in Panama, April 2015
Obama meets Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2015.
Presidential approval ratings
G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final
Obama with his then-new successor Donald Trump and his later successor Joe Biden, at the former's inauguration on January 20, 2017
Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio Macri, October 2017
Obama and his wife Michelle at the inauguration of Joe Biden
Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to other presidents, as measured as a cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term

A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008 and as an Illinois state senator from 1997 to 2004.

Obama was elected over Republican nominee John McCain in the general election and was inaugurated alongside his running mate Joe Biden, on January 20, 2009.

Official portrait, 2017

Donald Trump

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

Official portrait, 2017
Trump at the New York Military Academy in 1964
Trump (far right) and wife Ivana in the receiving line of a state dinner for King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985, with U.S. president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Trump Tower in Midtown Manhattan
Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Trump and New Jersey Generals quarterback Doug Flutie at a 1985 press conference in the lobby of Trump Tower
Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Trump at a New York Mets baseball game in 2009
Trump and President Bill Clinton in June 2000
Trump speaking at CPAC 2011
Trump campaigning in Arizona, March 2016.
2016 electoral vote results. Trump won 304–227
Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017
Trump is sworn in as president by Chief Justice John Roberts
Trump speaks to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017
Trump and group of officials and advisors on the way from White House complex to St. John's Church
Trump examines border wall prototypes in Otay Mesa, California.
Trump with the other G7 leaders at the 45th summit in France, 2019
Trump and Xi Jinping at 2018 G20 Summit.
Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit in Saudi Arabia
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meeting with Taliban delegation in Qatar in September 2020
Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit, June 2018
Putin and Trump shaking hands at the G20 Osaka summit, June 2019
Trump and his third Supreme Court nominee, Amy Coney Barrett.
Trump conducts a COVID-19 press briefing with members of the White House Coronavirus Task Force on March 15, 2020
Poland's president Andrzej Duda visited the White House on June 24, 2020, the first foreign leader to do so since the start of the pandemic.
Trump boards helicopter for COVID-19 treatment on October 2, 2020
Trump discharged on October 5, 2020, from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Members of House of Representatives vote on two articles of impeachment, December 18, 2019
Trump displaying the front page of The Washington Post reporting his acquittal by the Senate
Trump at a 2020 campaign rally in Arizona
2020 Electoral College results, Trump lost 232–306
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi signing the second impeachment of Trump
Trump speaks at the "Rally to Protect Our Elections" in Phoenix, Arizona, July 2021.
Trump talking to the press, March 2017
Fact-checkers from The Washington Post, the Toronto Star, and CNN compiled data on "false or misleading claims" (orange background), and "false claims" (violet foreground), respectively.

He won the 2016 United States presidential election as the Republican nominee against Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton but lost the popular vote, becoming the first U.S. president with no prior military or government service.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863

Abraham Lincoln

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

He reentered politics in 1854, becoming a leader in the new Republican Party, and he reached a national audience in the 1858 Senate campaign debates against Stephen Douglas.

Lincoln, a moderate Republican, had to navigate a contentious array of factions with friends and opponents from both the Democratic and Republican parties.

Official portrait, 2021

Joe Biden

American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States.

American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States.

Official portrait, 2021
Biden at Archmere Academy in the 1950s
Biden in the Syracuse 1968 yearbook
Results of the 1972 U.S. Senate election in Delaware
Biden and his second wife, Jill, met in 1975 and married in 1977
Biden with President Jimmy Carter, 1979
Biden shaking hands with President Ronald Reagan, 1984
Biden speaking at the signing of the 1994 Crime Bill with President Bill Clinton in 1994
Senator Biden accompanies President Clinton and other officials to Bosnia and Herzegovina, December 1997
Biden addresses the press after meeting with Prime Minister Ayad Allawi in Baghdad in 2004.
Biden at the White House in 1987
Biden campaigns at a house party in Creston, Iowa, July 2007
Biden speaks at the August 23, 2008, vice presidential announcement at the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois
Biden being sworn in as vice president on January 20, 2009
President Obama congratulates Biden for his role in shaping the debt ceiling deal which led to the Budget Control Act of 2011.
Biden during a visit to Baghdad
Biden, Obama and the national security team gathered in the White House Situation Room to monitor the progress of the May 2011 mission to kill Osama bin Laden
Biden and Obama, July 2012
Official vice president portrait, 2013
Biden with Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu in Jerusalem, March 9, 2016
Biden with Vice President-elect Mike Pence on November 10, 2016
Biden with Barack Obama and Donald Trump, at the latter's inauguration on January 20, 2017
Biden at his presidential kickoff rally in Philadelphia, May 2019
Biden takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2021
Biden with his Cabinet, July 2021
Biden meeting with Secretary General of NATO Jens Stoltenberg in the Oval Office, June 7, 2021
Biden in a video conference with Vice President Harris and the U.S. National Security team, discussing the Fall of Kabul on August 15, 2021
Percent change from a year earlier
Biden, UK prime minister Boris Johnson and UN secretary-general António Guterres at the opening ceremony of the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow on November 1, 2021
Biden with Ketanji Brown Jackson in the Oval Office
Biden with refugees from Ukraine in Warsaw, March 2022
President Barack Obama and Biden talk with Xi Jinping, February 14, 2012
President Obama presents Biden with the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction, January 12, 2017

A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 47th vice president from 2009 to 2017 under Barack Obama and represented Delaware in the United States Senate from 1973 to 2009.

During eight years as vice president, Biden leaned on his Senate experience and frequently represented the administration in negotiations with congressional Republicans, including on the Budget Control Act of 2011, which resolved a debt ceiling crisis, and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which addressed the impending "fiscal cliff".

Official portrait, 1989

George H. W. Bush

American politician, diplomat, and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993.

American politician, diplomat, and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993.

Official portrait, 1989
George H. W. Bush at his grandfather's house in Kennebunkport, c. 1925
Bush in his Grumman TBF Avenger aboard USS San Jacinto in 1944
Bush in Phillips Academy's 1942 yearbook
Bush, top right, stood with his wife and children, mid-1960s
Former president Dwight D. Eisenhower with Bush
Bush in 1969
Bush greeting then California Governor Ronald Reagan in 1967
Bush as ambassador to the United Nations, 1971
Bush as U.S. Liaison to China, c. 1975
Bush, as CIA Director, listens at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut of Francis E. Meloy Jr. and Robert O. Waring, 1976
1980 campaign logo
Ronald Reagan, moderator Jon Breen, and Bush participate in the Nashua, New Hampshire, presidential debate, 1980
The Reagan–Bush ticket won the 1980 presidential election with 50.7% of the popular vote and a large majority of the electoral vote
Official portrait of Vice President Bush, 1981
President Ronald Reagan with Bush
Reagan and Bush in a meeting to discuss the United States' invasion of Grenada with a group of bipartisan members of Congress in October 1983
Vice President Bush standing with President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev on the New York City waterfront in 1988
1988 campaign logo
John Ashcroft and Vice President Bush campaign in St. Louis, Missouri, 1988
Bush won the 1988 presidential election with 53.4% of the popular vote and a large majority of the electoral vote
Chief Justice William Rehnquist administers the Presidential Oath of Office to George H. W. Bush
Map showing the division of East and West Germany until 1990, with Berlin in yellow
Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at the Helsinki Summit in 1990
In 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved into fifteen independent republics, including Russia (labeled 11)
Iraq (green) invaded Kuwait (orange) in 1990
Bush meets with Robert Gates, General Colin Powell, Secretary Dick Cheney and others about the situation in the Persian Gulf, 1991
From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney; (seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, and Michael Wilson at the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992
Bush appointed Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court in 1991
Bush's approval ratings (red) compared to his disapproval ratings (blue) during his presidency
Bush was defeated in the 1992 presidential election by Bill Clinton
President Bill Clinton meeting with former presidents George H. W. Bush and Jimmy Carter at the White House in September 1993
George and Barbara Bush, 2001
From left to right: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter
Members of the public pay their respects at the casket of George H. W. Bush lying in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.
Bush visits NAS JRB during Hurricane Katrina relief efforts, 2005
The George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, 2011

A member of the Republican Party, Bush also served as the 43rd vice president from 1981 to 1989 under Ronald Reagan, in the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, and as Director of Central Intelligence.

By the early 1960s, Bush was widely regarded as an appealing political candidate, and some leading Democrats attempted to convince Bush to become a Democrat.

Official portrait, 2003

George W. Bush

American politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

American politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

Official portrait, 2003
George W. Bush with his parents, Barbara and George H. W. Bush, c. undefined 1947
Governor Bush (right) with father, former president George H. W. Bush, and wife, Laura, 1997
2000 electoral vote results
2004 electoral vote results
George W. Bush re-election campaign stop in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Deficit and debt increases from 2001 to 2009. Gross debt has increased over $500billion each year since the 2003 fiscal year.
President Bush signing the No Child Left Behind Act into law, January 8, 2002
President Bush delivering a statement on energy, urging Congress to end offshore oil drill ban, June 18, 2008
President Bush discussing border security with Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff near El Paso, November 2005
President Bush with hurricane victims in Biloxi, September 2, 2005
President Bush announcing his nomination of Alberto Gonzales as the next U.S. Attorney General, November 10, 2004
Countries visited by President George W. Bush during his time in office
President Bush with Russian president Vladimir Putin in Shanghai, October 21, 2001. Russia had cooperated with the U.S. in the war on terror.
President Bush, beside firefighter Bob Beckwith, addressing rescue workers at the World Trade Center site
Countries with major military operations throughout the war on terror launched by Bush, including those launched after his presidency
President Bush and President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan in Kabul, March 1, 2006
President Bush, with Naval Flight Officer Lieutenant Ryan Philips, after landing on the USS Abraham Lincoln prior to his Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003
Gallup/USA Today Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to January 2009
Protest against the Iraq War in New London, Connecticut on May 23, 2007
Countries with a U.S. military presence in 2007
Charlie Strong (left), Texas Longhorns head football coach, George W. Bush and Reverend Jesse Jackson hold up a Texas Longhorns football jersey at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2014
Bush eulogizing his father at the National Cathedral, December 5, 2018
George W. Bush and Laura at the inauguration of Joe Biden
George W. Bush Presidential Center, on the campus of Southern Methodist University

A member of the Bush family and son of former president George H. W. Bush, he previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 as part of the Republican Party.

In the 2000 presidential election, Bush defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a narrow and contested win that involved a Supreme Court decision to stop a recount in Florida.

Official portrait, 1981

Ronald Reagan

American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

Official portrait, 1981
Ronald Reagan's boyhood home in Dixon, Illinois
The Bad Man (1941)
Capt. Ronald Reagan at Fort Roach, 1943 or 1944.
Guest stars for the premiere of The Dick Powell Show, 1961. Reagan can be seen wearing a ten-gallon hat on the far left.
Reagan testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee, October 1947
Reagan and his first wife Jane Wyman, 1942
Wedding of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, 1952. Matron of honor Brenda Marshall (left) and best man William Holden (right) were the sole guests.
Nancy and Ronald Reagan aboard a boat in California, 1964
The Reagans meet with President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon, July 1970
Reagan and President Ford shake hands on the podium after Reagan narrowly lost the nomination at the 1976 Republican National Convention
1980 electoral vote results
Ronald Reagan, moderator Jon Breen, and Bush participate in the Nashua, New Hampshire presidential debate, 1980
President and Mrs. Reagan at the 1981 inauguration parade
Supreme Court justice-nominee Sandra Day O'Connor talks with Reagan outside the White House, July 15, 1981.
Reagan outlines his plan for Tax Reduction Legislation in a televised address from the Oval Office, July 1981
Reagan addresses Congress on the Program for Economic Recovery, April 28, 1981 (a few weeks after surviving the assassination attempt)
As the first U.S. president invited to speak before the British Parliament (June 8, 1982), Reagan predicted Marxism–Leninism would end up on the "ash heap of history".
Meeting with leaders of the Afghan Mujahideen in the Oval Office, 1983
Reagan with actress Sigourney Weaver and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.
Reagan (far left) and First Lady Nancy Reagan pay their respects to the 17 American victims of the April 18 attack on the U.S. embassy by Hezbollah in Beirut, 1983
1984 presidential electoral votes by state. Reagan (red) won every state except Mondale's home state of Minnesota; Mondale also carried the District of Columbia.
Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president by Chief Justice Burger in the Capitol rotunda
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (here with Reagan in 1986) granted the U.S. use of British airbases to launch the Libya attack.
Reagan (center) receives the Tower Commission Report regarding the Iran-Contra affair in the Cabinet Room with John Tower (left) and Edmund Muskie (right)
Challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall" at the Brandenburg Gate, June 12, 1987
Gorbachev and Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, December 1987
The Reagans in Los Angeles, 1992
The Reagans with a model of USS Ronald Reagan, May 1996
Reagan lying in state in the Capitol rotunda
A bronze statue of Reagan standing in the National Statuary Hall Collection
President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev, 1985
Reagan in 1982
Approval ratings for President Reagan (Gallup)
Former President Reagan returns to the White House to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Bush, 1993
{{circa}} 1916–17. Pictured from left: Father Jack, older brother Neil, Reagan (with "Dutchboy" haircut), and mother Nelle
1920s. As a teenager, in Dixon, Illinois
{{circa|lk=no|1960}}. Hosting General Electric Theater
1976. At his home at Rancho del Cielo
1985. His second presidential portrait

A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975 after a career as a Hollywood actor and union leader.

He won the nomination and the election, defeating incumbent Democratic president Jimmy Carter.

Clinton in 2016

Hillary Clinton

American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator representing New York from 2001 to 2009, and as first lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 as the wife of President Bill Clinton.

American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator representing New York from 2001 to 2009, and as first lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 as the wife of President Bill Clinton.

Clinton in 2016
Mementos of Hillary Rodham's early life, shown at the William J. Clinton Presidential Center
Rodham in Maine South High School's 1965 yearbook
Rodham (center) campaigning for Wellesley College Government President in 1968, an election which she later won
Hillary and Bill lived in this house in Little Rock's Hillcrest neighborhood while he was Arkansas Attorney General (1977–1979).
Bill and Hillary Clinton with President Ronald and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Clinton in 1992
Clinton presenting her health care plan, September 1993
Hillary Clinton speaks about the 1993 health care plan at GWU Hospital.
Read Across America Day in Maryland, 1998
Inauguration Day walk down Pennsylvania Avenue to start Bill's second term as president, January 20, 1997
Results of the 2000 United States Senate election in New York. Clinton won the counties in blue.
Reenactment of Hillary Rodham Clinton's swearing-in as a U.S. senator by Vice President Al Gore in the Old Senate Chamber, as Bill and Chelsea look on
Official photo as U.S. senator
Clinton listens as the chief of naval operations, Admiral Michael Mullen, responds to a question during his 2007 confirmation hearing with the Senate Armed Services Committee
Clinton at the 2007 CDA National Convention
Clinton campaigning at Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minnesota, two days before Super Tuesday, 2008
State-by-state popular votes in the Democratic primaries and caucuses, shaded by percentage won: Obama in purple, Clinton in green. (Popular vote winners and delegate winners differed in New Hampshire, Nevada, Missouri, Texas and Guam.)
Clinton speaks on behalf of her former rival, Barack Obama, during the second night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention
Official secretary of state portrait, 2009
Associate Judge Kathryn Oberly of the D.C. Court of Appeals administers the oath of office of secretary of state to Hillary Rodham Clinton as her husband Bill Clinton holds the Bible
Clinton and Obama at the 21st NATO summit, April 2009
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Clinton hold a "reset button", March 2009
Greeting service members at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, October 2010
The London meeting to discuss NATO military intervention in Libya, March 29, 2011
Clinton with Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi during her December 2011 visit to Myanmar
Clinton, along with members of the national security team, receive an update on Operation Neptune Spear in the White House Situation Room on May 1, 2011. Everyone in the room is watching a live feed from drones operating over the Osama bin Laden complex.
Obama and Clinton honor the Benghazi attack victims at the Transfer of Remains Ceremony, held at Andrews Air Force Base on September 14, 2012
Clinton addressing email controversy with the media at the UN Headquarters on March 10, 2015
Clinton in September 2014
Clinton campaigning for president in Manchester, New Hampshire, in October 2016, with Massachusetts senator Elizabeth Warren (seated)
Clinton, accepting Senator Bernie Sanders' endorsement in New Hampshire, July 2016
Clinton delivering her concession speech
The Clintons at Donald Trump's inauguration
Clinton and her husband attend a wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery after the inauguration of Joe Biden
Copies of What Happened at an event on Clinton's book tour promoting the memoir
2016 presidential campaign logo
Clinton worked at Rose Law Firm for fifteen years. Her professional career and political involvement set the stage for public reaction to her as the first lady.
Clinton in April 2015

A member of the Democratic Party, she was the party's nominee for president in the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first woman to win a presidential nomination by a major U.S. political party; Clinton won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College vote, thereby losing the election to Donald Trump.

She responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya but was harshly criticized by Republicans for the failure to prevent or adequately respond to the 2012 Benghazi attack.