Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States (1829–1837) and the first Democratic president.
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Martin Van Buren was the eighth president of the United States (1837–1841) and the second Democratic president.
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
Senator Stephen A. Douglas
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland, the only president with non-consecutive terms
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Leaders of the Democratic Party during the first half of the 20th century on 14 June 1913: Secretary of State William J. Bryan, Josephus Daniels, President Woodrow Wilson, Breckinridge Long, William Phillips, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, 32nd and 33rd presidents of the United States (1933–1945; 1945–1953), featured on a campaign poster for the 1944 presidential election
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, 35th and 36th presidents of the United States (1961–1963, 1963–1969)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–1981), delivering the State of the Union Address in 1979
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), at The Pentagon in 1998
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Barack Obama speaking to College Democrats of America in 2007
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
President Barack Obama meeting with the Blue Dog Coalition in the State Dining Room of the White House in 2009
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Eleanor Roosevelt at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law at the White House on March 23, 2010
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Secretary of State John Kerry addressing delegates at the United Nations before signing the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Shirley Chisholm was the first major-party African American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Immigration Act of 1965 as Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and others look on
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Then-Senator Barack Obama shaking hands with an American soldier in Basra, Iraq in 2008
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meeting with President Barack Obama at Ben Gurion Airport in 2013
Self-identified Democrats (blue) versus self-identified Republicans (red) (January–June 2010 data)
Higher percentages of Democrats than Republicans are members of union households.
Elected at age 33, Jon Ossoff is currently the youngest member of the U.S. Senate.
Hillary Clinton was the first woman to be nominated for president by a major party.
Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg
Vice President Kamala Harris
Julián Castro served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
U.S. Senator Tammy Duckworth
Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
U.S. Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

Since the mid-1850s, it has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party.

- Republican Party (United States)

Its main political rival has been the Republican Party since the 1850s.

- Democratic Party (United States)

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Official campaign portrait, 1944

Franklin D. Roosevelt

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American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official campaign portrait, 1944
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908
Roosevelt in 1944
Roosevelt supported Governor Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential election.
Theodore Roosevelt was Franklin Roosevelt's distant cousin and an important influence on his career.
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920
Rare photograph of Roosevelt in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941).
Gov. Roosevelt with his predecessor Al Smith, 1930
Results of the 1930 gubernatorial election in New York
Roosevelt in the early 1930s
1932 electoral vote results
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
1936 re-election handbill for Roosevelt promoting his economic policy
1936 electoral vote results
Roosevelt with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas and other dignitaries in Brazil, 1936
The Roosevelts with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, sailing from Washington, D.C., to Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the USS Potomac during the first U.S. visit of a reigning British monarch (June 9, 1939)
Foreign trips of Roosevelt during his presidency
1940 electoral vote results
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales for 1941 Atlantic Charter meeting
Territory controlled by the Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in June 1942
The Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in December 1944
1944 electoral vote results
Official portrait of President Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury, c. 1947
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As a member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century.

In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover in one of the largest landslide victories in US history.

1980 United States presidential election

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The 49th quadrennial presidential election.

The 49th quadrennial presidential election.

Ronald Reagan campaigning with his wife Nancy and Senator Strom Thurmond in Columbia, South Carolina, October 10, 1980
Ronald Reagan campaigning in Florida
Ronald Reagan shaking hands with supporters at a campaign stop in Indiana
President Carter (left) and former Governor Reagan (right) at the presidential debate on October 28, 1980
Election results by county
Results by congressional district
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Republican nominee Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Democratic president Jimmy Carter in a landslide victory.

Official portrait, 1974

Gerald Ford

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American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from 1974 to 1977, and was the only president never to have been elected to the office of president or vice president.

American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from 1974 to 1977, and was the only president never to have been elected to the office of president or vice president.

Official portrait, 1974
The Gunnery officers of USS Monterey (CVL-26), 1943. Ford is second from the right, in the front row.
A billboard for Ford's 1948 congressional campaign from Michigan's 5th district
The Warren Commission (Ford 4th from left) presents its report to President Johnson (1964)
Congressman Gerald Ford, MSFC director Wernher von Braun, Congressman George H. Mahon, and NASA Administrator James E. Webb visit the Marshall Space Flight Center for a briefing on the Saturn program, 1964.
Gerald and Betty Ford with the President and First Lady Pat Nixon after President Nixon nominated Ford to be vice president, October 13, 1973.
Gerald Ford is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Warren Burger in the White House East Room, while Betty Ford looks on.
President Ford appears at a House Judiciary Subcommittee hearing in reference to his pardon of Richard Nixon
Ford meeting with his Cabinet, 1975
Ford and his golden retriever, Liberty, in the Oval Office, 1974
Cheney, Rumsfeld and Ford in the Oval Office, 1975
Ford meets with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev to sign a joint communiqué on the SALT treaty during the Vladivostok Summit, November 1974
Countries visited by Ford during his presidency
Ford with Anwar Sadat in Salzburg, 1975
Ford and his daughter Susan watch as Henry Kissinger (right) shakes hands with Mao Zedong, December 2, 1975
Indonesian President Suharto with Ford and Kissinger in Jakarta on December 6, 1975, one day before the Indonesian invasion of East Timor.
Reaction immediately after the second assassination attempt
John Paul Stevens, Ford's only Supreme Court appointment.
Governor Ronald Reagan congratulates President Ford after the president successfully wins the 1976 Republican nomination, while Bob Dole, Nancy Reagan, and Nelson Rockefeller look on.
Jimmy Carter and Ford in a presidential debate, September 23, 1976.
1976 electoral vote results
On July 16, 1980 (day 3 of the 1980 Republican National Convention) Gerald Ford consults with Bob Dole, Howard Baker and Bill Brock before making a decision to ultimately decline the offer to serve as Ronald Reagan's running mate
Ford joins President Bill Clinton and former presidents George H. W. Bush and Jimmy Carter on stage at the dedication of the George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum at Texas A&M University, November 6, 1997
Ford at his 90th birthday with Laura Bush, President George W. Bush, and Betty Ford in the White House State Dining Room in 2003
Ford lying in state in the Capitol rotunda
The Fords on their wedding day, October 15, 1948
President George W. Bush with Ford and his wife Betty on April 23, 2006

He previously served as the leader of the Republican Party in the House of Representatives, and as the 40th vice president from 1973 to 1974.

In the 1976 Republican presidential primary campaign, Ford defeated former California Governor Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination, but narrowly lost the presidential election to the Democratic challenger, former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter.

Missouri Compromise line (36°30′ parallel) in dark blue, 1820. Territory above this line would be reserved for free states, and below, slave states

Kansas–Nebraska Act

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Territorial organic act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

Territorial organic act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

Missouri Compromise line (36°30′ parallel) in dark blue, 1820. Territory above this line would be reserved for free states, and below, slave states
The United States after the Compromise of 1850 and the Gadsden Purchase. Douglas sought to organize parts of the area labeled as "Unorganized territory."
Stephen A. Douglas – "The great principle of self-government is at stake, and surely the people of this country are never going to decide that the principle upon which our whole republican system rests is vicious and wrong."
Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler. An 1854 cartoon depicts a giant free soiler being held down by James Buchanan and Lewis Cass, standing on the Democratic platform of making slave states out of "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America". Franklin Pierce also holds down the giant's beard, as Stephen A. Douglas shoves a black man down his throat.
Sam Houston from Texas was one of the few southern opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. In the debate, he urged, "Maintain the Missouri Compromise! Stir not up agitation! Give us peace!"
Alexander Stephens from Georgia – "Nebraska is through the House. I took the reins in my hand, applied the whip and spur, and brought the 'wagon' out at eleven o'clock P.M. Glory enough for one day."
Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri – "What is the excuse for all this turmoil and mischief? We are told it is to keep the question of slavery out of Congress! Great God! It was out of Congress, completely, entirely, and forever out of Congress, unless Congress dragged it in by breaking down the sacred laws which settled it!"
Charles Sumner on Douglas – "Alas! too often those principles which give consistency, individuality, and form to the Northern character, which renders it staunch, strong, and seaworthy, which bind it together as with iron, are drawn out, one by one, like the bolts of the ill-fitted vessel, and from the miserable, loosened fragments is formed that human anomaly—a Northern man with Southern principles. Sir, no such man can speak for the North."
This 1856 map shows slave states (gray), free states (pink), U.S. territories (green), and Kansas (white)

It was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas, passed by the 33rd United States Congress, and signed into law by President Franklin Pierce.

Its Northern remnants would give rise to the anti-slavery Republican Party.

1860 United States presidential election

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The 19th quadrennial presidential election, held on November 6, 1860.

The 19th quadrennial presidential election, held on November 6, 1860.

Chicago Wigwam, site of the Republican Convention
The South Carolina Institute located in Charleston. The Institute hosted the Democratic National Convention and December Secession Convention in 1860.
Douglas/Johnson campaign poster
Maryland Institute Hall, Baltimore. The bolting delegates nominated Breckinridge before Richmond vote
A Constitutional Union campaign poster, 1860, portraying John Bell and Edward Everett, respectively the candidates for president and vice president. Once Lincoln was inaugurated and called up the militia, Bell supported the secession of Tennessee. In 1863, Everett dedicated the new cemetery at Gettysburg.
Map of presidential election results by county
Former Representative Abraham Lincoln
Senator William H. Seward from New York
Senator Simon Cameron
Governor Salmon P. Chase
Former Representative Edward Bates from Missouri
Associate Justice John McLean
Senator Benjamin Wade from Ohio
Former Senator William L. Dayton from New Jersey
Senator Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois
Former Treasury Secretary James Guthrie
Senator
Senator Joseph Lane from Oregon
Former Senator
Senator Andrew Johnson
Senator Jefferson Davis from Mississippi
Former Senator John Bell of Tennessee
Governor Sam Houston of Texas
Senator John J. Crittenden from Kentucky
Former Senator Edward Everett from Massachusetts
Former Senator William A. Graham from North Carolina
Former Senator William C. Rives from Virginia
Former Representative Gerrit Smith from New York
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Northern Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of Southern Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of Constitutional Union presidential election results by county
Map of "Fusion" slate presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Northern Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Southern Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Constitutional Union presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "Fusion" slate presidential election results by county

In a four-way contest, the Republican Party ticket of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, absent from the ballot in ten slave states, won a national popular plurality, a popular majority in the North where states already had abolished slavery, and a national electoral majority comprising only Northern electoral votes.

The incumbent president, James Buchanan, like his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, was a Northern Democrat with Southern sympathies.

1996 United States presidential election

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The 53rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1996.

The 53rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1996.

Ross Perot was on the ballot in every state.
Harry Browne was on the ballot in every state.
Ralph Nader was on the ballot in twenty-one states (225 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.
John Hagelin was on the ballot in forty-three states (463 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.
Howard Phillips was on the ballot in thirty-eight states (414 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.
Dole (left) and Clinton (right) at the first presidential debate on October 6, 1996, at The Bushnell Center for the Performing Arts in Hartford, Connecticut.
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{{center|President Bill Clinton from Arkansas}}
{{center|Activist Lyndon LaRouche from Virginia}}
{{center|Conservative columnist Pat Buchanan from Virginia}}
{{center|Newspaper and magazine publisher Steve Forbes from New York}}
{{center|Former Governor Lamar Alexander of Tennessee}}
{{center|Former U.S. ECOSOC Ambassador Alan Keyes, from Maryland}}
{{center|Senator Richard Lugar from Indiana}}
{{center|Senator Phil Gramm from Texas}}
{{center|Representative Bob Dornan from California}}
{{center|Senator Arlen Specter from Pennsylvania}}
{{center|Governor Pete Wilson of California}}
Party Founder Ross Perot, from Texas
Former Governor Richard Lamm of Colorado
Election results by county.{{legend|#1560BD|Bill Clinton|border=1px #AAAAAA solid}}{{legend|#E32636|Bob Dole|border=1px #AAAAAA solid}}
Results by congressional district.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.

Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeated former Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, the Republican nominee, and Ross Perot, the Reform Party nominee.

Presidency of Bill Clinton

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Bill Clinton's tenure as the 42nd president of the United States began with his first inauguration on January 20, 1993, and ended on January 20, 2001.

Bill Clinton's tenure as the 42nd president of the United States began with his first inauguration on January 20, 1993, and ended on January 20, 2001.

The 1992 electioral college vote
President Clinton's Cabinet, 1993. The President is seated front right, with Vice President Al Gore seated front left.
Gross US Federal Debt as a Percentage of GDP, by political party of President
Budget deficits and surpluses in billions of dollars, 1971–2001
Clinton shaking hands with Gerry Adams outside a business in East Belfast, November 30, 1995
Map of the six Yugoslav republics and autonomous provinces in 1991
Clinton presided over the admission of Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic into NATO
Jo Myong-rok (center right), Kim Jong-il's defence minister, with U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen, 2000
Clinton defeated Republican Bob Dole in the 1996 presidential election.
Republican George W. Bush defeated Democrat Al Gore in the 2000 presidential election.
Graph of Clinton's approval ratings in Gallup polls

Clinton, a Democrat from Arkansas, took office following a decisive victory over Republican incumbent president George H. W. Bush and independent businessman Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election.

1864 United States presidential election

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Held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864.

Held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864.

Lincoln and Johnson campaign poster
"How the War Commenced and How Near It Is Ended" published by the National Union Executive Committee.
McClellan and Pendleton campaign poster
Frémont and Cochrane campaign poster
A National Union poster warns of a McClellan victory.
An anti-McClellan poster from Harper's Weekly, drawn by Thomas Nast, showing rioters assaulting children, slave-catchers chasing runaway slaves, and a woman being sold at a slave auction.
Map of presidential election results by county
{{Center|President Abraham Lincoln from Illinois}}
<center>Former Senator Andrew Johnson from Tennessee</center>
<center>Vice President Hannibal Hamlin from Maine</center>
<center>Major General Benjamin Butler from Massachusetts</center>
<center>Former Senator Daniel Dickinson from New York</center>
<center>Major General Lovell Rousseau from Kentucky</center>
<center>Major General
<center>Former Governor Thomas H. Seymour
<center>Senator
<center>Former President Franklin Pierce
<center>Governor
<center>Representative
<center>Railroad President George W. Cass
<center>Representative
<center>Former Senator Augustus C. Dodge
<center>Former Senator John C. Frémont from California
<center>General John Cochrane from New York</center>
Results explicitly indicating the percentage for the National Union candidate in each county
Results explicitly indicating the percentage for the Democratic candidate in each county
Results explicitly indicating the percentage for "other" candidate(s) in each county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of National Union presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
{{Center|Commanding General Ulysses S. Grant from Illinois}}

Near the end of the American Civil War, incumbent President Abraham Lincoln of the National Union Party easily defeated the Democratic nominee, former General George B. McClellan, by a wide margin of 212–21 in the electoral college, with 55% of the popular vote.

For the election, the Republican Party and some Democrats created the National Union Party, especially to attract War Democrats.

2004 United States presidential election

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The 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.

The 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.

Senator Kerry at a primary rally in St. Louis, Missouri, at the St. Louis Community College – Forest Park
David Cobb, the Green Party candidate
Libertarian candidate Michael Badnarik
Bush speaking at campaign rally in St. Petersburg, Florida, October 19, 2004
Neighboring yard signs for Bush and Kerry in Grosse Pointe, Michigan
These maps show the amount of attention given by the campaigns to the close states. At left, each waving hand represents a visit from a presidential or vice-presidential candidate during the final five weeks. At right, each dollar sign represents one million dollars spent on TV advertising by the campaigns during the same time period.
Cheney visited Washington & Jefferson College in Pennsylvania on October 27, 2004
Bush in the Oval Office, receiving a concession phone call from Kerry, which came the afternoon of the day following the election after Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell declared that it would be statistically impossible for Kerry to overcome Bush's lead in the state's results
Map of election day problems
Presidential electoral votes by state. Red is Republican; blue is Democratic.
Presidential popular votes by county. Note substantially more "mixing" of colors.
Presidential popular votes by county as a scale from red/Republican to blue/Democratic.
Presidential popular votes cartogram, in which the sizes of counties have been rescaled according to their population.
Cartogram in which each square represents one electoral vote.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.
Change in vote margins at the county level from the 2000 election to the 2004 election. While Bush improved nationally overall, making his strongest gains in the South, he suffered a loss of support in parts of New England and the Western United States, which swung in Kerry's favor.
Results by congressional district.

The Republican ticket of incumbent President George W. Bush and his running mate incumbent Vice President Dick Cheney were elected to a second term, defeating the Democratic ticket of John Kerry, a United States senator from Massachusetts and his running mate John Edwards, a United States senator from North Carolina.

Graph showing historical party control of the U.S. Senate, House and Presidency since 1855

United States Senate

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Upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the House of Representatives being the lower chamber.

Upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the House of Representatives being the lower chamber.

Graph showing historical party control of the U.S. Senate, House and Presidency since 1855
Members of the United States Senate for the 117th Congress
A typical Senate desk
The Senate side of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.
Committee Room 226 in the Dirksen Senate Office Building is used for hearings by the Senate Judiciary Committee.
The Senate has the power to try impeachments; shown above is Theodore R. Davis's drawing of the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson, 1868
U.S. Senate chamber c. 1873: two or three spittoons are visible by desks

The Democratic Party traditionally sits to the presiding officer's right, and the Republican Party traditionally sits to the presiding officer's left, regardless of which party has a majority of seats.