Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States (1829–1837) and the first Democratic president.
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Martin Van Buren was the eighth president of the United States (1837–1841) and the second Democratic president.
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
Senator Stephen A. Douglas
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland, the only president with non-consecutive terms
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Leaders of the Democratic Party during the first half of the 20th century on 14 June 1913: Secretary of State William J. Bryan, Josephus Daniels, President Woodrow Wilson, Breckinridge Long, William Phillips, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, 32nd and 33rd presidents of the United States (1933–1945; 1945–1953), featured on a campaign poster for the 1944 presidential election
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, 35th and 36th presidents of the United States (1961–1963, 1963–1969)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–1981), delivering the State of the Union Address in 1979
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), at The Pentagon in 1998
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Barack Obama speaking to College Democrats of America in 2007
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
President Barack Obama meeting with the Blue Dog Coalition in the State Dining Room of the White House in 2009
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Eleanor Roosevelt at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law at the White House on March 23, 2010
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Secretary of State John Kerry addressing delegates at the United Nations before signing the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Shirley Chisholm was the first major-party African American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Immigration Act of 1965 as Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and others look on
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Then-Senator Barack Obama shaking hands with an American soldier in Basra, Iraq in 2008
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meeting with President Barack Obama at Ben Gurion Airport in 2013
Self-identified Democrats (blue) versus self-identified Republicans (red) (January–June 2010 data)
Higher percentages of Democrats than Republicans are members of union households.
Elected at age 33, Jon Ossoff is currently the youngest member of the U.S. Senate.
Hillary Clinton was the first woman to be nominated for president by a major party.
Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg
Vice President Kamala Harris
Julián Castro served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
U.S. Senator Tammy Duckworth
Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
U.S. Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

Since the mid-1850s, it has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party.

- Republican Party (United States)

Its main political rival has been the Republican Party since the 1850s.

- Democratic Party (United States)

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Alabama police in 1965 attack voting rights marchers on "Bloody Sunday", the first of the Selma to Montgomery marches

Voting Rights Act of 1965

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Landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

Landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

Alabama police in 1965 attack voting rights marchers on "Bloody Sunday", the first of the Selma to Montgomery marches
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks at the signing of the Voting Rights Act on August 6, 1965
United States President George W. Bush signs amendments to the Act in July 2006
The first page of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
States and counties encompassed by the Act's coverage formula in January 2008 (excluding bailed-out jurisdictions). Several counties subsequently bailed out, but the majority of the map accurately depicts covered jurisdictions before the Supreme Court's decision in Shelby County v. Holder (2013), which declared the coverage formula unconstitutional.
Final page of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the Senate Hubert Humphrey, and Speaker of the House John McCormack

President Lyndon B. Johnson recognized this, and shortly after the 1964 elections in which Democrats gained overwhelming majorities in both chambers of Congress, he privately instructed Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach to draft "the goddamndest, toughest voting rights act that you can".

He enlisted Dirksen to help gain Republican support.

War Democrat

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War Democrats in American politics of the 1860s were members of the HiDemocratic Party who supported the Union and rejected the policies of the Copperheads (or Peace Democrats).

War Democrats in American politics of the 1860s were members of the HiDemocratic Party who supported the Union and rejected the policies of the Copperheads (or Peace Democrats).

In the critical state elections in Ohio in 1862, the Republicans and War Democrats formed a Unionist Party.

This led to victory over the Democrats, led by Copperhead Clement Vallandigham.

North American Free Trade Agreement

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Agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States that created a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

Agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States that created a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

NAFTA GDP – 2012 : IMF – World Economic Outlook Databases (Oct 2013)
Back row, left to right: Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, at the initialing of the draft North American Free Trade Agreement in October 1992. In front are Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development Jaime Serra Puche, United States Trade Representative Carla Hills, and Canadian Minister of International Trade Michael Wilson.
Obama, Peña Nieto and Harper at the IX North American Leaders' Summit (informally known as the Three Amigos Summit) in Toluca
Former President Enrique Peña Nieto with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada and then-President Barack Obama of the United States at the 2016 North American Leaders' Summit
Chrystia Freeland, Luis Videgaray Caso and Rex Tillerson in Mexico City in 2018

The agreement's supporters included 132 Republicans and 102 Democrats.

1988 United States presidential election

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The 51st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1988.

The 51st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1988.

The incumbent in 1988, Ronald Reagan. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 1989.
Former Representative Ron Paul ran on the Libertarian ticket. He returned to the House of Representatives in 1997 as a Republican.
Michael Dukakis on tank
Michael Dukakis at a campaign rally at UCLA's Pauley Pavilion on the eve of the 1988 election
Chief Justice William Rehnquist administering the oath of office to President George H. W. Bush on January 20, 1989, at the United States Capitol
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Results by congressional district
Election results by county.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

The Republican nominee, incumbent Vice President George H. W. Bush, defeated the Democratic nominee, Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts.

The Southern United States as defined by the Census Bureau

Southern strategy

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The Southern United States as defined by the Census Bureau
Richard Nixon campaigning in 1968
1920 presidential election map showing Democrat James M. Cox winning only the Solid South and Republican Warren G. Harding prevailing in the electoral college. From the time of Reconstruction until the Civil Rights Era, the Southern states consistently supported the Democratic candidate for President.
Editorial cartoon by Thomas Nast from the January 18, 1879 issue of Harper's Weekly criticizing the use of literacy tests. It shows "Mr. Solid South" writing on the wall: "Eddikashun qualifukashun. The Blak man orter be eddikated afore he kin vote with us Wites." The Republican Nast often satirized the Democratic Party by caricaturing its adherents as poor, ignorant, and violent.
1964 presidential candidate Barry Goldwater won his home state of Arizona and five states in the Deep South, depicted in red. The Southern states, traditionally Democratic up to that time, voted Republican primarily as a statement of opposition to the Civil Rights Act, which had been passed in Congress earlier that year. Capturing 61.1% of the popular vote and 486 electors, Johnson won in a landslide.
Alabama Governor George Wallace
Lee Atwater

In American politics, the Southern strategy was a Republican Party electoral strategy to increase political support among white voters in the South by appealing to racism against African Americans.

From 1948 to 1984, the Southern states, for decades a stronghold for the Democrats, became key swing states, providing the popular vote margins in the 1960, 1968 and 1976 elections.

Women marching for the right to vote, 1912

Progressivism in the United States

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Political philosophy and reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century.

Political philosophy and reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century.

Women marching for the right to vote, 1912
"The Bosses of the Senate", a cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests–from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes and salt–as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate
A poster highlighting the situation of child labor in the United States in the early 20th century
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle exposed Americans to the horrors of the Chicago meatpacking plants.
Senator Bernie Sanders, an advocate of single-payer healthcare
Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez from New York, an advocate of action on climate change and author of the Green New Deal

The American Federation of Labor under Samuel Gompers after 1907 began supporting the Democrats, who promised more favorable judges as the Republicans appointed pro-business judges.

The President and White House staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.

Affordable Care Act

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Landmark U.S. federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.

Landmark U.S. federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.

The President and White House staff react to the House of Representatives passing the bill on March 21, 2010.
Jim Clyburn and Nancy Pelosi celebrate after the House passes the amended bill on March 21.
President Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on March 23, 2010.
John Chafee
Mitt Romney's Massachusetts went from 90% of its residents insured to 98%, the highest rate in the nation.
President Obama addressing Congress regarding healthcare reform, September 9, 2009
Tea Party protesters at the Taxpayer March on Washington, September 12, 2009
U.S. health insurance coverage by source in 2016. CBO estimated ACA/Obamacare was responsible for 23 million persons covered via exchanges and Medicaid expansion.
This chart illustrates several aspects of the Affordable Care Act, including number of persons covered, cost before and after subsidies, and public opinion.
Excise taxes percentage 2015
States that expanded Medicaid under ACA had a lower uninsured rate in 2018 at various income levels.
The distributional impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA or Obamacare) during 2014. ACA raised taxes mainly on the top 1% to fund approximately $600 in benefits on average for the bottom 40% of families.
Coverage rate, employer market cost trends, budgetary impact, and income inequality aspects of the Affordable Care Act
Congressional Democrats celebrate the 6th anniversary of the Affordable Care Act on the steps of the Capitol.
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Tax Cuts and Jobs Act—number of additional persons uninsured
Senate vote by state
Democratic yes (58)
Independent yes (2)
Republican no (39)
Republican not voting (1)
House vote by congressional district
Democratic yes (219)
Democratic no (34)
Republican no (178)
No representative seated (4)
Medicaid expansion by state, as of July 1, 2020 
Adopted the Medicaid expansion
Medicaid expansion under discussion
Not adopting Medicaid expansion

It was championed for a time by conservative economists and Republican senators as a market-based approach to healthcare reform on the basis of individual responsibility and avoidance of free rider problems.

During a midnight congressional session starting January 11, the Senate of the 115th Congress of the United States voted to approve a "budget blueprint" that would allow Republicans to repeal parts of the law "without threat of a Democratic filibuster".

Popular votes to political parties during presidential elections.

Political parties in the United States

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American electoral politics have been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic.

American electoral politics have been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic.

Popular votes to political parties during presidential elections.
Political parties derivation. Dotted line means unofficially.

Two major parties dominated the political landscape: the Whig Party, led by Henry Clay, that grew from the National Republican Party; and the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson.

The Third Party System stretched from 1854 to the mid-1890s, and was characterized by the emergence of the anti-slavery Republican Party, which adopted many of the economic policies of the Whigs, such as national banks, railroads, high tariffs, homesteads and aid to land grant colleges.

Michigan

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State in the Great Lakes region of the upper Midwestern United States.

State in the Great Lakes region of the upper Midwestern United States.

Père Marquette and the Indians (1869) by Wilhelm Lamprecht
Map of British America showing the original boundaries of the Province of Quebec and its Quebec Act of 1774 post-annexation boundaries
Treaty of Paris, by Benjamin West (1783), an unfinished painting of the American diplomatic negotiators of the Treaty of Paris which brought official conclusion to the Revolutionary War and gave possession of Michigan and other territory to the new United States
Detroit in the mid-twentieth century. At the time, the city was the fourth-largest U.S. metropolis by population, and held about one-third of the state's population.
The Michigan State Capitol in Lansing houses the legislative branch of the government of the U.S. state of Michigan.
The floor of the Michigan House of Representatives
Governor Gretchen Whitmer (D) speaking at a National Guard ceremony in 2019
Michigan Supreme Court at the Hall of Justice
Map of the Saint Lawrence River/Great Lakes Watershed in North America. Its drainage area includes the Great Lakes, the world's largest system of freshwater lakes. The basin covers nearly all of Michigan.
The Huron National Wildlife Refuge, one of the fifteen federal wildernesses in Michigan
Mackinac Island, an island and resort area at the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac. More than 80% of the island is preserved as Mackinac Island State Park.
Sleeping Bear Dunes, along the northwest coast of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan
The Tahquamenon Falls in the Upper Peninsula
The Pointe Mouillee State Game Area, one of the 221 state game and wildlife areas in Michigan. It encompasses 7,483 acres of hunting, recreational, and protected wildlife and wetland areas at the mouth of the Huron River at Lake Erie, as well as smaller outlying areas within the Detroit River.
Köppen climate types of Michigan, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Michigan population distribution
The Basilica of Sainte Anne de Détroit is the second-oldest continuously operating Roman Catholic parish in the country.
The Ambassador Bridge, a suspension bridge that connects Detroit with Windsor, Ontario, in Canada. It is the busiest international border crossing in North America in terms of trade volume.
Michigan is the center of the American automotive industry. The Renaissance Center in Downtown Detroit is the world headquarter of General Motors.
Ford Dearborn Proving Ground (DPG) completed major reconstruction and renovations in 2006.
Distribution of Michigan's jobs as percentages of entire workforce
Michigan is the leading U.S. producer of tart cherries, blueberries, pickling cucumbers, navy beans and petunias.
The world headquarters of the Kellogg's Company in Battle Creek
Mackinac Island is well-known for cultural events and a wide variety of architectural styles, including the Victorian Grand Hotel
Holland, Michigan, is the home of the Tulip Time Festival, the largest tulip festival in the U.S.
Marquette, Michigan, is home to a vast snowmobile trail system.
Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station on the shore of Lake Erie near Monroe
The Bluewater Bridge, a twin-span bridge across the St. Clair River that links Port Huron and Sarnia, Ontario
US Highway 2 (US 2) runs along Lake Michigan from Naubinway to its eastern terminus at St. Ignace.
The Mackinac Bridge, a suspension bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac to connect the Upper and Lower peninsulas of Michigan
Aerial view of Detroit Metro Airport (DTW)
The Finlandia University in Hancock, Houghton County, Michigan
Cranbrook Schools, one of the leading college preparatory boarding schools in the country
Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor is the largest stadium in the Western Hemisphere, and the third-largest stadium in the world.
Michigan International Speedway in Brooklyn, Michigan
Dwarf lake iris
Michigan 2020 population distribution

Having been a Democratic-leaning state at the presidential level since the 1990s, Michigan has evolved into a swing state after Donald Trump won the state in 2016.

Governors since the 1970s have alternated between the Democrats and Republicans, and statewide offices including attorney general, secretary of state, and senator have been held by members of both parties in varying proportion.

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

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Presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.

Presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.

Frederick Muhlenberg (1789–1791, 1793–1795), was the first speaker.
Henry Clay (1811–1814, 1815–1820, 1823–1825) used his influence as speaker to ensure the passage of measures he favored
Joseph Gurney Cannon (1903–1911) was one of the most powerful speakers.
Sam Rayburn (1940–1947; 1949–1953; and 1955–1961) was the longest serving speaker
Speaker Nancy Pelosi (right) with Vice President Dick Cheney behind President George W. Bush at the 2007 State of the Union Address making history as the first woman to sit behind the podium at such an address. President Bush acknowledged this by beginning his speech with the words, "Tonight, I have a high privilege and distinct honor of my own — as the first president to begin the State of the Union message with these words: Madam Speaker".
Paul Ryan taking the oath of office upon becoming speaker on October 29, 2015
James Polk is the only speaker to also serve as president of the United States.
The speaker's office in the US Capitol, during the term of Dennis Hastert (1999–2007)

The current House speaker is Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California.

Anyone who votes for the other party's candidate would face serious consequences, as was the case when Democrat James Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in 2001 (107th Congress).