A report on Democratic Republic of the Congo

View of Leopoldville Station and Port in 1884
1908 photograph of a married Christian couple.
Force Publique soldiers in the Belgian Congo in 1918. At its peak, the Force Publique had around 19,000 Congolese soldiers, led by 420 Belgian officers.
The leader of ABAKO, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, first democratically elected President of Congo-Léopoldville
Patrice Lumumba, first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Congo-Léopoldville, was murdered by Belgian-supported Katangan separatists in 1961
Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C., 1973.
Mobutu with the Dutch Prince Bernhard in Kinshasa in 1973
Belligerents of the Second Congo War
Refugees in the Congo
People fleeing their villages due to fighting between FARDC and rebel groups, North Kivu, 2012
Government troops near Goma during the M23 rebellion in May 2013
DR Congo's President Félix Tshisekedi with neighbouring Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso in 2020; both wear face masks due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo map of Köppen climate classification
Ituri Rainforest
Mount Nyiragongo, which last erupted in 2021.
Salonga National Park.
Masisi Territory
Lake Kivu in North Kivu province
Bas-Congo landscape
An Okapi
A male western gorilla
Hippopotami
Joseph Kabila was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from January 2001 to January 2019.
President Joseph Kabila with U.S. President Barack Obama in August 2014
FARDC soldiers on patrol in Ituri province
A group of demobilized child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
A proportional representation of Democratic Republic of the Congo exports, 2019
Change in per capita GDP of Congo, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Rough diamonds ≈1 to 1.5 mm in size from DR Congo.
DR Congo's Human Development Index scores, 1970–2010.
Collecting firewood in Basankusu.
Train from Lubumbashi arriving in Kindu on a newly refurbished line.
Map of rail network
Major Bantu languages in the Congo
Kongo youth and adults in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Amani festival in Goma
Family in Rutshuru, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
The population pyramid of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Our Lady of Peace Cathedral in Bukavu
A classroom in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Development of life expectancy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population fleeing their villages due to fighting between FARDC and rebels groups, Sake North Kivu 30 April 2012
A Hemba male statue
Stade des Martyrs in Kinshasa.
The Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral, Lubumbashi

Country in Central Africa.

- Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Overall

Congo River

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Second longest river in Africa, shorter only than the Nile, as well as the second largest river in the world by discharge volume, following only the Amazon.

Second longest river in Africa, shorter only than the Nile, as well as the second largest river in the world by discharge volume, following only the Amazon.

Aerial view from the west of the Congo River with upstream half of Pool Malebo and Mbamu
Course and drainage basin of the Congo River with countries marked
Course and drainage basin of the Congo River with topography shading
The town of Mbandaka is a busy port on the banks of the Congo River.
The Congo River at Maluku.
The beginning of the Livingstone Falls (Lower Congo Rapids) near Kinshasa
17th-century map of the Congo estuary
In this 1853 map of Africa, the remaining Unexplored Region essentially corresponds to the Congo basin
Henry M Stanley with the officers of the Advance Column, Cairo, 1890. From the left: Dr. Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, Henry M. Stanley, William G. Stairs, and Arthur J. M. Jephson
Congo River Allegory by Thomas Vinçotte.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo are named after it, as was the previous Republic of the Congo which had gained independence in 1960 from the Belgian Congo.

Rwanda

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Landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge.

Landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge.

A reconstruction of the ancient King's Palace at Nyanza
Juvénal Habyarimana, president from 1973 to 1994
Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial
Rwandan President Paul Kagame
Chamber of Deputies building
Provinces of Rwanda
The Kagera and Ruvubu rivers, part of the upper Nile
Lake and volcano in the Virunga Mountains
Volcanoes National Park is the home of the largest population of Mountain Gorillas in the world.
Giraffe in Akagera National Park
Estimated development of real GDP per capita in Rwanda, since 1950
Coffee beans drying in Maraba. Coffee is one of Rwanda's major cash crops.
Mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park
Rural water pump
Rural children
Children in a Rwandan primary school, using laptops supplied by the One Laptop Per Child program
Butaro Hospital at Burera, Northern Province
Historical development of life expectancy in Rwanda
Roman Catholic church in Rwamagana
Traditional Rwandan intore dancers
Rwandan woven agaseke basket
Adrien Niyonshuti, "one of the most famous people in Rwanda", competing in the cross-country mountain biking event at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Topography of Rwanda
Graphical depiction of Rwanda's product exports.
Rwanda produced 2.6 million tons of banana in 2019, its largest cash crop.
Rwanda electricity production by source
A plate of ugali and cabbage.

Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Kinshasa

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View of Léopoldville station and port (1884)
Kinshassa village (1912)
Down at the banks of the Congo River in Ngaliema commune
Kinshasa Districts Communes and Quarters (2021)
Kinshasa in 2016
Statue of Lumumba, and behind it the Limete Tower
Marsavco
Kinshasa in 2013
The University of Kinshasa
Office of the Agence Congolaise de Presse (ACP)
Stadium of the Martyrs
The People's Palace, seat of the Congolese parliament
Road of Kinshasa City
The Boulevard du 30 Juin provides an artery to the business district in Gombe, Kinshasa.
A memorial at Kinshasa train station remembering those who died during the construction of the railroad
Downtown Kinshasa at night
Église Sainte-Anne de Kinshasa (Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Église Francophone CBCO Kintambo (Baptist Community of Congo)

Kinshasa (Kinsásá), formerly Léopoldville (Leopoldstad), is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is the largest francophone city in the world.

Belgian Congo

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Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960.

Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960.

The Belgian Congo (dark green) shown alongside Ruanda-Urundi (light green), 1935
Leopold II, King of the Belgians and de facto owner of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908
The Belgian Congo (dark green) shown alongside Ruanda-Urundi (light green), 1935
Children mutilated during King Leopold II's rule
Former residence of the Governor-General of the Belgian Congo (1908–1923) located in Boma
On the left hand side, the former Ministry of the Colonies, adjacent to the Constitutional Court, Brussels
Map of the Belgian Congo
The Force Publique in German East Africa during World War I
A steam boat arriving at Boma on the Congo River in 1912
Belgo-Congolese troops of the Force Publique after the Battle of Tabora, 19 September 1916
Ruandan migrant workers at the Kisanga mine in Katanga, ca. 1920
Railways (grey/black) and navigable waterways (purple) in the Belgian Congo
Propaganda leaflet produced by the Ministry of the Colonies in the early 1920s
The majority of the uranium used in the Manhattan Project came from the Shinkolobwe mine.
Students in the Teaching laboratory, Medical School, Yakusu, c. undefined 1930–1950
Scheutist missionary on tour in the neighbourhood of Léopoldville around 1920
Education by the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary (c. undefined 1930)
Nurses of the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga and their Congolese assistants, Élisabethville, 1918
A female missionary is pulled in a rickshaw by Congolese men, c. undefined 1920–1930
King Albert I and Queen Elisabeth inspecting the military camp of Léopoldville during their visit to the Belgian Congo, 1928
Joseph Kasa-Vubu, leader of ABAKO and the first democratically elected President of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
Patrice Lumumba, first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
Opening meeting of the Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference in Brussels on 20 January 1960
Lumumba and Eyskens sign the document granting independence to the Congo
Belgian soldier lying in front of dead hostages, November 1964, in Stanleyville during Operation Dragon Rouge. Belgian paratroopers freed over 1,800 European and American hostages held by Congolese rebels.
Equestrian statue of Leopold II in Kinshasa

The former colony adopted its present name, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 1964.

Situation in the Congo in August 1998, by the time of Operation Kitona: Blue – Democratic Republic of the Congo and allies Red – Rwanda and allies Yellow – Uganda and allies

Second Congo War

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Situation in the Congo in August 1998, by the time of Operation Kitona: Blue – Democratic Republic of the Congo and allies Red – Rwanda and allies Yellow – Uganda and allies
Belligerents of the Second Congo War: Violet – Democratic Republic of the Congo Orange – anti-DRC coalition Dark blue – pro-DRC coalition Light blue – DRC allies, not directly involved in the war. Green – DRC supporters politically
Estimate of territory held by factions in 2001 to 2003.
A rebel soldier with a PK machine gun photographed near the Rwandan border in 2001
Meeting of victims of Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The Second Congo War, also known as the Great War of Africa or the Great African War and sometimes referred to as the African World War, began in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in August 1998, little more than a year after the First Congo War, and involved some of the same issues.

Mobutu in 1983

Mobutu Sese Seko

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Mobutu in 1983
Mobutu in 1983
Colonel Mobutu in 1960
Colonel Joseph-Desiré Mobutu (left) with President Joseph Kasa-Vubu, 1961
A Congolese cotton shirt embellished with a portrait of Mobutu from the collection of the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam
Mobutu sworn in as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo following the 1970 election
Flag of Zaire
Mobutu Sese Seko with the Dutch Prince Bernhard in 1973
Mobutu Sese Seko in army fatigues, 1978
10 Makuta coin depicting Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C., October 1973
Mobutu Sese Seko and U.S. President George H. W. Bush in Washington, D.C., 1989.
Mobutu's palace in his hometown of Gbadolite, ransacked after he was deposed and exiled. Photographed c. undefined2010
Mobutu in a 1963 visit to Israel, where he participated in a shortened IDF paratrooper course
Gui Polspoel with Frédéric François and Mobutu in Gbadolite, 1992

Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was a Congolese politician and military officer who was the President of Zaire from 1965 to 1997 (known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965 to 1971).

Zaire

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Mobutu was the president of Zaire from 1965 to 1997.
Presidential standard of Zaire

Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre, ), was a Congolese state from 1971 to 1997 in Central Africa that was previously and is now again known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Uganda

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Landlocked country in East Africa.

Landlocked country in East Africa.

A caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, in the Empire of Kitara (present-day Uganda) as observed by medical missionary Robert William Felkin in 1879. This incident was recorded long before the arrival of the European missionary doctors and clinics. The kingdom performed a highly developed surgical procedure, the first-ever cesarean section technique that saved both the mother and child.
Flag of the Uganda Protectorate
Construction of the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja.
The Uganda printers building on Kampala Road, Kampala, Uganda
Grey Crowned Crane - a symbol of Uganda.
Belligerents of the Second Congo War. On 19 December 2005, the International Court of Justice found against Uganda, in a case brought by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for illegal invasion of its territory, and violation of human rights.
Uganda map of Köppen climate classification.
U.S. President George W. Bush met with President Yoweri Museveni in Entebbe, Uganda, 11 July 2003.
Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill.
Graphical depiction of Uganda's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Change in per capita GDP of Uganda, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Coffee fields in southwestern Uganda
Workers at a textile factory in Jinja
Entebbe International Airport
Road to Murchison
Mobile operators offer money sending, receiving services, bill payments among many more services.
Students in Uganda
Development of life expectancy
Rwenzori mountains in Uganda
An ethnolinguistic map of Uganda
Cultural celebrations in Northern Uganda
Woman in Rwenzori – Western Uganda
Mandela National Stadium in Kira Town.
Side view of Victoria Nile
Saint Mary's Cathedral Rubaga, is the parent cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala.

The country is bordered to the East by Kenya, to the North by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, and to the south by Tanzania.

Kisangani

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Arab slave raid on Nyangwe, circa 1870
Europeans at Stanleyville in 1902
Stanley Falls Station, map plan in 1893, laying the foundations of Kisangani
Belgian paratroopers in action during Operation Dragon Rouge in 1964
Wagenya fishermen
Cascades of the Tshopo River
Stade Lumumba
Our Lady of the Rosary Cathedral, Kisangani
Sunset over the Congo river.

Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville or Stanleystad) is the capital of Tshopo province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Central African Republic

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Landlocked country in Central Africa.

Landlocked country in Central Africa.

The Bouar Megaliths, pictured here on a 1967 Central African stamp, date back to the very late Neolithic Era (c. 3500–2700 BCE).
The Sultan of Bangassou and his wives, 1906
Charles de Gaulle in Bangui, 1940.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa, self-crowned Emperor of Central Africa
Rebel militia in the northern countryside, 2007.
Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic, January 2014
Current military situation in Central African Republic
Falls of Boali on the Mbali River
A village in the Central African Republic
Dzanga-Sangha Reserve
Central African Republic map of Köppen climate classification.
Central African Republic President Faustin Touadera with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 11 April 2019
President Faustin Touadera with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 23 May 2018
The Aka Pygmies living in the Dzanga-Sangha Special Reserve
Fula women in Paoua
A Christian church in the Central African Republic.
A proportional representation of Central African Republic exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in the Central African Republic
Bangui shopping district
Trucks in Bangui
Classroom in Sam Ouandja
Mothers and babies aged between 0 and 5 years are lining up in a Health Post at Begoua, a district of Bangui, waiting for the two drops of the oral polio vaccine.
A Central African woman

It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the southeast, the DR Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and Cameroon to the west.