# Demography

**demographicdemographicsdemographerPopulation by agedemographersdemographicallydemographic datacohortdemographic groupdemographic change**

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, ies "writing, description or measurement" ) is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.wikipedia

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### Demographic analysis

**general populationage structure of the populationdemographic indicators**

Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity.

Demographic analysis estimates are often considered a reliable standard for judging the accuracy of the census information gathered at any time.

### Population

**populationspopulacepopulated**

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, ies "writing, description or measurement" ) is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations.

### Population dynamics

**growth modelHistory of population dynamicsintrinsic rate of increase**

As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics).

The early period was dominated by demographic studies such as the work of Benjamin Gompertz and Pierre François Verhulst in the early 19th century, who refined and adjusted the Malthusian demographic model.

### Ibn Khaldun

**Ibn KhaldounIbn Khaldūna fourteenth century Muslim historian**

Important contributors to the field were William of Conches, Bartholomew of Lucca, William of Auvergne, William of Pagula, and Muslim sociologists like Ibn Khaldun.

He is widely considered as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics, and demography.

### John Graunt

**Graunt, JohnGrauntCapt. John Graunt**

One of the earliest demographic studies in the modern period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality (1662) by John Graunt, which contains a primitive form of life table.

John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.

### Richard Price

**Dr PriceDr. PricePrice**

Richard Price was credited with the first textbook on life contingencies published in 1771, followed later by Augustus de Morgan, ‘On the Application of Probabilities to Life Contingencies’ (1838).

He also wrote on issues of demography and finance, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society.

### Thomas Robert Malthus

**Thomas MalthusMalthusRobert Malthus**

His work influenced Thomas Robert Malthus, who, writing at the end of the 18th century, feared that, if unchecked, population growth would tend to outstrip growth in food production, leading to ever-increasing famine and poverty (see Malthusian catastrophe).

Thomas Robert Malthus (13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

### Benjamin Gompertz

**Gompertz, BenjaminB. GompertzGompertz term**

Later, more sophisticated and realistic models were presented by Benjamin Gompertz and Verhulst.

Gompertz is now best known for his Gompertz law of mortality, a demographic model published in 1825.

### Benjamin Franklin

**Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin**

In 1755, Benjamin Franklin published his essay Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc., projecting exponential growth in British colonies.

Franklin had a major influence on the emerging science of demography, or population studies.

### Jacques Bertillon

**JacquesBertillon, Jacques**

This period included a panoply of international ‘great demographers’ like Adolphe Quételet (1796–1874), William Farr (1807–1883), Louis-Adolphe Bertillon (1821–1883) and his son Jacques (1851–1922), Joseph Körösi (1844–1906), Anders Nicolas Kaier (1838–1919), Richard Böckh (1824–1907), Émile Durkheim (1858-1917), Wilhelm Lexis (1837–1914), and Luigi Bodio (1840–1920) contributed to the development of demography and to the toolkit of methods and techniques of demographic analysis.

Jacques Bertillon (November 11, 1851 – July 7, 1922) was a French statistician and demographer.

### Ansley J. Coale

**CoaleAnsley CoaleCoale, Ansley J.**

They include models of mortality (including the life table, Gompertz models, hazards models, Cox proportional hazards models, multiple decrement life tables, Brass relational logits), fertility (Hernes model, Coale-Trussell models, parity progression ratios), marriage (Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model), disability (Sullivan's method, multistate life tables), population projections (Lee-Carter model, the Leslie Matrix), and population momentum (Keyfitz).

Ansley Johnson Coale (November 14, 1917 – November 5, 2002), was one of America's foremost demographers.

### Census

**UK censuscensusespopulation census**

A census is the other common direct method of collecting demographic data.

This allows adjustments to the count for non-response, varying between different demographic groups.

### Birth rate

**crude birth ratebirth ratesbirthrate**

The number of live births is normally taken from a universal registration system for births; population counts from a census, and estimation through specialized demographic techniques.

### Wilhelm Lexis

**Lexis, WilhelmLexis**

This period included a panoply of international ‘great demographers’ like Adolphe Quételet (1796–1874), William Farr (1807–1883), Louis-Adolphe Bertillon (1821–1883) and his son Jacques (1851–1922), Joseph Körösi (1844–1906), Anders Nicolas Kaier (1838–1919), Richard Böckh (1824–1907), Émile Durkheim (1858-1917), Wilhelm Lexis (1837–1914), and Luigi Bodio (1840–1920) contributed to the development of demography and to the toolkit of methods and techniques of demographic analysis.

Throughout his professional career, Lexis published books and articles on a wide variety of topics, including demography, economics and mathematical statistics.

### Life expectancy

**lifespanlife spanlife expectancies**

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

### Population projection

**population levelpopulation projectionsestimate or projections**

They include models of mortality (including the life table, Gompertz models, hazards models, Cox proportional hazards models, multiple decrement life tables, Brass relational logits), fertility (Hernes model, Coale-Trussell models, parity progression ratios), marriage (Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model), disability (Sullivan's method, multistate life tables), population projections (Lee-Carter model, the Leslie Matrix), and population momentum (Keyfitz).

Population projection, in the field of demography, is an estimate of a future population.

### Adolphe Quetelet

**QueteletLambert Adolphe Jacques QueteletQuetelet, Adolphe**

This period included a panoply of international ‘great demographers’ like Adolphe Quételet (1796–1874), William Farr (1807–1883), Louis-Adolphe Bertillon (1821–1883) and his son Jacques (1851–1922), Joseph Körösi (1844–1906), Anders Nicolas Kaier (1838–1919), Richard Böckh (1824–1907), Émile Durkheim (1858-1917), Wilhelm Lexis (1837–1914), and Luigi Bodio (1840–1920) contributed to the development of demography and to the toolkit of methods and techniques of demographic analysis.

His scientific research encompassed a wide range of different scientific disciplines: meteorology, astronomy, mathematics, statistics, demography, sociology, criminology and history of science.

### Edmond Halley

**Edmund HalleyHalleySir Edmund Halley**

Mathematicians, such as Edmond Halley, developed the life table as the basis for life insurance mathematics.

The construction of the life-table for Breslau, which followed more primitive work by John Graunt, is now seen as a major event in the history of demography.

### Nathan Keyfitz

**KeyfitzKeyfitz, N.**

They include models of mortality (including the life table, Gompertz models, hazards models, Cox proportional hazards models, multiple decrement life tables, Brass relational logits), fertility (Hernes model, Coale-Trussell models, parity progression ratios), marriage (Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model), disability (Sullivan's method, multistate life tables), population projections (Lee-Carter model, the Leslie Matrix), and population momentum (Keyfitz).

Nathan Keyfitz FRSC FRSS (June 29, 1913 – April 6, 2010) was a Canadian demographer, a pioneer of mathematical demography.

### Life table

**mortality tablelife tablesactuarial tables**

One of the earliest demographic studies in the modern period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality (1662) by John Graunt, which contains a primitive form of life table. They include models of mortality (including the life table, Gompertz models, hazards models, Cox proportional hazards models, multiple decrement life tables, Brass relational logits), fertility (Hernes model, Coale-Trussell models, parity progression ratios), marriage (Singulate Mean at Marriage, Page model), disability (Sullivan's method, multistate life tables), population projections (Lee-Carter model, the Leslie Matrix), and population momentum (Keyfitz).

In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before his or her next birthday ("probability of death").

### Demographics of the world

**demographics**

Demographics of the world include population density, ethnicity, education level, health measures, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the human population of the Earth.

### Sociology

**sociologistsociologicalsociologists**

Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments.

Many comparatively new fields such as communication studies, cultural studies, demography and literary theory, draw upon methods that originated in sociology.

### Population Association of America

Population institutions are part of the Cicred (International Committee for Coordination of Demographic Research) network while most individual scientists engaged in demographic research are members of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, or a national association such as the Population Association of America in the United States, or affiliates of the Federation of Canadian Demographers in Canada.

The Population Association of America (PAA) is a non-profit scientific professional association dedicated to the study of issues related to population and demography.

### Demographic economics

**population economicseconomic demographyeconomics of ageing**

Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.

### Biodemography

**demographic**

Biodemography is the science dealing with the integration of biological theory and demography.