Demonstrative

demonstrative pronoundemonstrativesdemonstrative pronounsdemonstrative adjectivedemonstrative determinerdistal demonstrativeproximaladjectival determinersDEMdemonstrative adjectives
Demonstratives (abbreviated ) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.wikipedia
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Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
Demonstrative constructions include demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative determiners, which qualify nouns (as in Put that coat on); and demonstrative pronouns, which stand independently (as in Put that on).
Subtypes include personal and possessive pronouns, reflexive and reciprocal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, relative and interrogative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns.

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
Demonstratives (abbreviated ) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth Germanic
In Modern German (and the Scandinavian languages), the non-selective deictic das Kind, der Kleine, die Kleine and the selective one das Kind, der Kleine, die Kleine are homographs, but they are spoken differently.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
The definite article sē and its inflections serve as a definite article ("the"), a demonstrative adjective ("that"), and demonstrative pronoun.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
The third set of Latin demonstratives (ille, etc.), developed into the definite articles in most Romance languages, such as el, la, los, las in Spanish, and le, la, les in French.
In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners, which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few").

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
The third set of Latin demonstratives (ille, etc.), developed into the definite articles in most Romance languages, such as el, la, los, las in Spanish, and le, la, les in French. French has a two-way distinction, with the use of postpositions "-ci" (proximal) and "-là" (distal) as in cet homme-ci and cet homme-là, as well as the pronouns ce and cela/ça.

Seri language

SeriCmiique Iitomsei
Spanish, Tamil and Seri also make this distinction.
Four simple demonstrative pronouns occur, plus a large set of compound demonstrative adjectives and pronouns.

Tamil language

TamilTamil-languageta
Spanish, Tamil and Seri also make this distinction.
Tamil nouns can take one of four prefixes: i, a, u, and e which are functionally equivalent to the demonstratives in English.

Determiner

determinersDeterminer (linguistics)definite determiner
Demonstrative constructions include demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative determiners, which qualify nouns (as in Put that coat on); and demonstrative pronouns, which stand independently (as in Put that on).
That is, a determiner may indicate whether the noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc. Common kinds of determiners include definite and indefinite articles (like the English the and a or an), demonstratives (this and that), possessive determiners (my and their), quantifiers (many, few and several), cardinal numbers, distributive determiners (each, any), and interrogative determiners (which).

Pro-form

proformcorrelative pronouncorrelatives
See pro-form for a full table.
L. L. Zamenhof, the inventor of Esperanto, called a table of systematic interrogative, demonstrative, and quantifier pro-forms and determiners in a language a table of correlatives, after the relative and demonstrative proforms, which function together as correlatives.

Classical Chinese

Literary ChineseChineseclassical
Classical Chinese had three main demonstrative pronouns: proximal undefined (this), distal undefined (that), and distance-neutral undefined (this or that).
There is no copula in Classical Chinese, "是" (pinyin: shì) is a copula in modern Chinese but in old Chinese it was originally a near demonstrative ("this"); the modern Chinese for "this" is "这" (pinyin: zhè).

Deixis

deicticdeicticsdeictically
They are typically deictic; their meaning depending on a particular frame of reference and cannot be understood without context.
The most salient English examples are the adverbs "here" and "there" and the demonstratives "this" and "that"—although those are far from being the only deictic words.

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
The frequent use of 是 as a resumptive demonstrative pronoun that reasserted the subject before a noun predicate caused it to develop into its colloquial use as a copula by the Han period and subsequently its standard use as a copula in Modern Standard Chinese.
As in many east Asian languages, classifiers or measure words are required when using numerals, demonstratives and similar quantifiers.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
The frequent use of 是 as a resumptive demonstrative pronoun that reasserted the subject before a noun predicate caused it to develop into its colloquial use as a copula by the Han period and subsequently its standard use as a copula in Modern Standard Chinese.
Before the Han Dynasty, the character 是 served as a demonstrative pronoun meaning "this."

Cree language

Creelanguagecre
The Cree language has a special demonstrative for "things just gone out of sight," and Ilocano, a language of the Philippines, has three words for this referring to a visible object, a fourth for things not in view and a fifth for things that no longer exist." The Tiriyó language has a demonstrative for "things audible but non-visible"
For the most part, Michif uses Cree verbs, question words, and demonstratives while using French nouns.

Tiriyó language

TiriyóTrio languageTiro-Tiriyó
The Cree language has a special demonstrative for "things just gone out of sight," and Ilocano, a language of the Philippines, has three words for this referring to a visible object, a fourth for things not in view and a fifth for things that no longer exist." The Tiriyó language has a demonstrative for "things audible but non-visible"

Word

wordsverballexical
Demonstratives (abbreviated ) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

Linguistic frame of reference

frame of reference
They are typically deictic; their meaning depending on a particular frame of reference and cannot be understood without context.

Abstraction

abstractabstract thinkingabstractions
Demonstratives are often used in spatial deixis (where the speaker or sometimes the listener are to provide context), but also in intra-discourse reference (including abstract concepts) or anaphora, where the meaning is dependent on something other than the relative physical location of the speaker, for example whether something is currently being said or was said earlier.

Anaphora (linguistics)

anaphoraanaphoricanaphor
Demonstratives are often used in spatial deixis (where the speaker or sometimes the listener are to provide context), but also in intra-discourse reference (including abstract concepts) or anaphora, where the meaning is dependent on something other than the relative physical location of the speaker, for example whether something is currently being said or was said earlier.

Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
Demonstrative constructions include demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative determiners, which qualify nouns (as in Put that coat on); and demonstrative pronouns, which stand independently (as in Put that on).

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
Demonstrative constructions include demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative determiners, which qualify nouns (as in Put that coat on); and demonstrative pronouns, which stand independently (as in Put that on).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The demonstratives in English are this, that, these, those, and the archaic yon and yonder, along with this one or that one as substitutes for the pronoun use of this or that.

Standard English

standardEnglishstandardized form of English
Many languages, such as English and Chinese, make a two-way distinction between demonstratives.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
Many languages, such as English and Chinese, make a two-way distinction between demonstratives.