Dendrochronology

dendrochronologicaltree ringgrowth ringstree ringsdendrochronologicallygrowth ringtree-ring datingdendrochronological datingdendochronologydendrochronologist
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed.wikipedia
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Dendroclimatology

Dendroclimatologisttree-ring datadendroclimatologists
As well as dating them this can give data for dendroclimatology, the study of climate and atmospheric conditions during different periods in history from wood. Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees primarily from the properties of the annual tree rings.
Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings).

Jacob Kuechler

In 1859, the German-American Jacob Kuechler (1823–1893) used crossdating to examine oaks (Quercus stellata) in order to study the record of climate in western Texas.
Kuechler pioneered the science of Dendrochronology to date natural events.

Radiocarbon dating

carbon datingradiocarbon datedcarbon dated
Dendrochronology is useful for determining the precise age of samples, especially those that are too recent for radiocarbon dating, which always produces a range rather than an exact date, to be very accurate.
The question was resolved by the study of tree rings: comparison of overlapping series of tree rings allowed the construction of a continuous sequence of tree-ring data that spanned 8,000 years.

Radiocarbon calibration

radiocarbon yearcalcalibrated
It is also used as a check in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.
Dendrochronology or the study of tree rings led to the first such sequence: tree rings from individual pieces of wood show characteristic sequences of rings that vary in thickness because of environmental factors such as the amount of rainfall in a given year.

Tree

treessaplingarboreal
New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees primarily from the properties of the annual tree rings. Horizontal cross sections cut through the trunk of a tree can reveal growth rings, also referred to as tree rings or annual rings.
These rings are the annual growth rings There may also be rays running at right angles to growth rings.

A. E. Douglass

Andrew Ellicott DouglassAndrew E. DouglassA.E. Douglass
During the first half of the twentieth century, the astronomer A. E. Douglass founded the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona.
He discovered a correlation between tree rings and the sunspot cycle, and founded the discipline of dendrochronology, which is a method of dating wood by analyzing the growth ring pattern.

Panel painting

paneloil on paneloil on wood
It also gives data on the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in wood found in archaeology or works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings.
Carbon-dating techniques can give an approximate date-range (typically to about a range of about 20 years), and dendrochronology sequences have been developed for the main source areas of timber for panels.

Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

During the first half of the twentieth century, the astronomer A. E. Douglass founded the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona.
The Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research (LTRR) was established in 1937 by A.E. Douglass, founder of the modern science of dendrochronology.

Chronological dating

datingdateddate
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed.

Wood

heartwoodwoodensapwood
Other properties of the annual rings, such as maximum latewood density (MXD) have been shown to be better proxies than simple ring width.
Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created.

Climate

climaticclimatesaverage annual temperature
Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees primarily from the properties of the annual tree rings.
Since very few direct observations of climate are available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores, and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral.

Early Netherlandish painting

Early NetherlandishEarly Netherlandish painterNetherlandish
Many Early Netherlandish paintings have turned out to be painted on panels of "Baltic oak" shipped from the Vistula region via ports of the Hanseatic League.
Wood supports allow for dendrochronological dating, and the particular use of Baltic oak gives clues as to the artist's location.

Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymous BoschBoschJheronimus Bosch
The results showed that the age of the wood was too late for any of them to have been painted by Hieronymus Bosch.
The recent dendrochronological investigation of the oak panels by the scientists at the Bosch Research and Conservation Project led to a more precise dating of the majority of Bosch's paintings.

Herbchronology

Age determination in herbaceous plantsHerbchronologist
Herbchronology is the analysis of annual growth rings (or simply annual rings) in the secondary root xylem of perennial herbaceous plants.
Herbchronology is the analysis of annual growth rings (or simply annual rings) in the secondary root xylem of perennial herbaceous plants.

Veliky Novgorod

NovgorodNovgorod the GreatPrincipality of Novgorod
Archaeological dating is fairly easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, and most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating.

Fairbanks House (Dedham, Massachusetts)

Fairbanks House
1641, making it the oldest surviving timber-frame house in North America that has been verified by dendrochronology testing.

Quercus stellata

post oakQuercus obtusilobapost oaks
In 1859, the German-American Jacob Kuechler (1823–1893) used crossdating to examine oaks (Quercus stellata) in order to study the record of climate in western Texas.
It is useful for fire surveys where the tree rings are used to get a fire history of an area.

Dendroarchaeology

dendroarchaeologicalDendroarchaeologist
The dating of buildings with wooden structures and components is also done by dendrochronology; dendroarchaeology is the term for the application of dendrochronology in archaeology.
Dendroarchaeology is a term used for the study of vegetation remains, old buildings, artifacts, furniture, art and musical instruments using the techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating).

Cross section (geometry)

cross sectioncross-sectioncross sections
Horizontal cross sections cut through the trunk of a tree can reveal growth rings, also referred to as tree rings or annual rings.
A cross-section of a tree trunk, as shown at left, reveals growth rings that can be used to find the age of the tree and the temporal properties of its environment.

Before Present

BPB.P.YBP
Dates are often represented as estimated calendar years B.P., for before present, where "present" refers to 1 January 1950.
Uncalibrated radiocarbon ages can be converted to calendar dates by means of calibration curves based on comparison of raw radiocarbon dates of samples independently dated by other methods, such as dendrochronology (dating on the basis of tree growth-rings) and stratigraphy (dating on the basis of sediment layers in mud or sedimentary rock).

Sweet Track

Sweet
Dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) of the timbers has enabled precise dating of the track, showing it was built in 3807 BC.

Paleoclimatology

paleoclimatepaleoclimatologistpalaeoclimatology
These are used for dating in a manner similar to dendrochronology, and such techniques are used in combination with dendrochronology, to plug gaps and to extend the range of the seasonal data available to archaeologists and paleoclimatologists.
Paleoclimatology uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within rocks, sediments, boreholes, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, shells, and microfossils.

Navan Fort

Emain MachaEamhain MachaEamhain Mhacha
This oak pillar has been dated by dendrochronology to the year 95 BC and could have stood about 13 metres tall.

Secondary growth

primary growthsecondaryanomalous secondary thickening
Growth rings result from new growth in the vascular cambium, a layer of cells near the bark that botanists classify as a lateral meristem; this growth in diameter is known as secondary growth.