Deng Xiaoping

DengDeng Xiao PingChairman DengTeng Hsiao-pingDeng eraDeng Hsaio PingDeng XiaopengDeng Xiaoping’s 1992 trip to ShenzhenDeng XiopengTeng Hsiao-p'ing
Deng Xiaoping (, also ; courtesy name Xixian; 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992.wikipedia
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Shanghai

Shanghai, ChinaSHAShanghai Municipality
Upon returning to China, Deng joined the party organization in Shanghai, becoming a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions.
In the 1990s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense redevelopment of the city, especially the Pudong district, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng gradually rose to power and led China through a series of far-reaching market-economy reforms, which earned him the reputation as the "Architect of Modern China."
During Mao's era, China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million while the government did not strictly enforce its family planning policy, forcing Mao's successors such as Deng Xiaoping to take stricter policies to cope with the overpopulation crisis.

History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976)

Maoist ChinaMao eraMao's China
Inheriting a country beset with social conflict, disenchantment with the Communist Party and institutional disorder resulting from the chaotic policies of the Mao era, Deng began to bring the country back to order.
The country's Mao era lasted from the founding of the People's Republic on 21 September 1949 to Deng Xiaoping's consolidation of power and policy reversal at the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Congress on 22 December 1978.

Great Leap Forward

The Great Leap Forwardcommunefamine
As the party's Secretary-general in the 1950s, Deng presided over the Anti-Rightist Campaign launched by Mao and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960).
Moderates like President Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rose to power in the Party, and Chairman Mao was marginalized within the party, leading him to initiate the Cultural Revolution in 1966 in order to re-consolidate his power.

Paramount leader

leaderparamount leader of Chinacomplete list
Deng Xiaoping (, also ; courtesy name Xixian; 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992. Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng and became the new paramount leader of China in December 1978.
The term gained prominence during the era of Deng Xiaoping (1978–1989), when he was able to wield political power without necessarily holding any official or formally significant party or government positions at any given time (head of state, head of government or General Secretary).

Cultural Revolution

Chinese Cultural RevolutionGreat Proletarian Cultural RevolutionCulture Revolution
However, his economic policies caused him to fall out of favor with Mao Zedong and he was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution.
Senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, were purged or exiled.

Chinese economic reform

reform and openingeconomic reformsreform and opening up
After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng gradually rose to power and led China through a series of far-reaching market-economy reforms, which earned him the reputation as the "Architect of Modern China." From 1977 to early 1979, he resumed the College Entrance Examination in China which was interrupted by the Cultural Revolution for ten years, initiated the historic Reform and Openning-up of China, and started a one-month Sino-Vietnamese War.
The Chinese economic reform (known in the West as the Opening of China) refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" and "socialist market economy" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) which reformists within the Communist Party of China—led by Deng Xiaoping—started in 18 December 1978.

Secretary-general of the Communist Party of China

Secretary-general
As the party's Secretary-general in the 1950s, Deng presided over the Anti-Rightist Campaign launched by Mao and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960).
Deng Xiaoping, the second-generation leader of China, served 3 times in the early years as the secretary-general of the Central Committee.

Hua Guofeng

Chairman HuaGuofengHua Kuo-feng
Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng and became the new paramount leader of China in December 1978.
In December 1978, a group of party veterans led by Deng Xiaoping, a pragmatic reformer, forced Hua from power but allowed him to retain some titles.

Chinese Red Army

Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red ArmyRed ArmyFirst Red Army
Upon returning to China, Deng joined the party organization in Shanghai, becoming a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions.
In the autumn of 1930, Deng Xiaoping's Seventh Army left its base area in Guangxi Province.

National College Entrance Examination

GaokaoNational Higher Education Entrance ExaminationUniversity Entrance Examination
From 1977 to early 1979, he resumed the College Entrance Examination in China which was interrupted by the Cultural Revolution for ten years, initiated the historic Reform and Openning-up of China, and started a one-month Sino-Vietnamese War.
In late 1977, Deng Xiaoping, then under Hua Guofeng, the heir apparent of Mao, officially resumed the traditional examination based on academics, the National Higher Education Entrance Examination, which has continued to the present day.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics

Chinese socialismsocialistChinese Marxism
While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary (leader of the Communist Party), some called him "the architect" of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise, dubbed the "socialism with Chinese characteristics".
The term entered common usage during the era of Deng Xiaoping and was largely associated with Deng's overall program of adopting elements of market economics as a means to foster growth using foreign investment and to increase productivity (especially in the countryside where 80% of China's population lived) while the Communist Party of China retained both its formal commitment to achieve communism and its monopoly on political power.

Sino-Vietnamese War

Sino-Vietnam WarSino–Vietnamese WarChinese invasion of Vietnam
From 1977 to early 1979, he resumed the College Entrance Examination in China which was interrupted by the Cultural Revolution for ten years, initiated the historic Reform and Openning-up of China, and started a one-month Sino-Vietnamese War.
Following the death of Mao in September 1976, the overthrow of the Gang of Four and the ascent of Deng Xiaoping, the Chinese leadership would revise its own positions to become compatible with market aspects, denounce the Cultural Revolution, and collaborate with the US against the Soviet Union.

Constitution of the People's Republic of China

constitutionChinese ConstitutionConstitution of China
In August 1980, he started China's political reforms by setting term limits for officials and proposing a systematic revision of China's third Constitution which was made during the Cultural Revolution; the new Constitution embodied Chinese-style constitutionalism and was passed by the National People's Congress in December, 1982, with most of its content still being effective as of today.
The 1982 Constitution reflects Deng Xiaoping's determination to lay a lasting institutional foundation for domestic stability and modernization.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Deng Xiaoping (, also ; courtesy name Xixian; 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992.
Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms.

Standard of living in China

standard of livingliving standardliving standards
He opened China to foreign investment and the global market, policies that are credited with developing China into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for several generations and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions.
In 1978, the Communist Party of China, under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, began to introduce market reforms, including decollectivizing agriculture, allowing foreign investment and individual entrepreneurship.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923.
Following Mao's death in 1976, a power struggle between CPC Chairman Hua Guofeng and Vice-chairman Deng Xiaoping erupted.

Zhuo Lin

Pu Qiongying
His third wife Zhuo Lin was the daughter of an industrialist in Yunnan Province.
Zhuo Lin (April 6, 1916 – July 29, 2009) was the third and last wife of Deng Xiaoping, former Paramount leader of China.

Deng Pufang

They had five children: three daughters (Deng Lin, Deng Nan and Deng Rong) and two sons (Deng Pufang and Deng Zhifang).
Deng Pufang (born 16 April 1944) is the first son of China's former Paramount leader Deng Xiaoping.

Leader of the Communist Party of China

party leadercomplete listList of general secretaries and chairmen of the Communist Party of China
While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary (leader of the Communist Party), some called him "the architect" of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise, dubbed the "socialism with Chinese characteristics".
Deng Xiaoping is the last CPC official to achieve this; he never served as Chairman or General Secretary, his highest post being Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission.

Deng Nan

They had five children: three daughters (Deng Lin, Deng Nan and Deng Rong) and two sons (Deng Pufang and Deng Zhifang).
Deng was born the second daughter of Deng Xiaoping with his third wife Zhuo Lin.

Zhou Enlai

Chou En-laiZhou En-laiZhou En Lai
In La Garenne-Colombes Deng met Zhou Enlai, Nie Rongzhen, Cai Hesen, Zhao Shiyan and Li Wenhai.
Although Zhou was succeeded by Hua Guofeng as First Vice Chairman and designated successor, Zhou's ally Deng Xiaoping was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and took Hua's place as paramount leader by 1978.

863 Program

Program 863863Programme 863
In the 1980s, Deng supported the family planning policy to cope with China's overpopulation crisis, helped establish China's nine-year compulsory education, launched the 863 Program for science and technology, and revived China's political reforms which ended and failed during the June Fourth Incident in 1989.
On March 3, 1986, the program was suggested by Wang Daheng, Wang Ganchang, Yang Jiachi, and Chen Fangyun in a letter to China's paramount leader Deng Xiaoping, who approved the program within 2 days.

Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement

Diligent Work Frugal StudyDiligent Work-Frugal StudyDiligent-Work Frugal Study program
He and 80 schoolmates travelled by ship to France (travelling steerage) to participate in the Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement, a work-study program in which 4,001 Chinese would participate by 1927.
They included future leaders of the Chinese Communist Party such as Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping, as well as others who went on to prominent roles in China.

Chairman of the Communist Party of China

ChairmanChairman of the Party Central CommitteeChairman of the Communist Party
After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng gradually rose to power and led China through a series of far-reaching market-economy reforms, which earned him the reputation as the "Architect of Modern China."
In 1976, Hua Guofeng was named First Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee, a post previously held unofficially by Liu Shaoqi from 1956 to 1966; Zhou Enlai from 1973 to 1975; and Deng Xiaoping in 1975 in the capacity of "Vice-Chairman in charge of the day-to-day work of the Central Committee".