A report on Depressant

Distilled (concentrated) alcoholic beverages, sometimes called “spirit” or "hard liquor", roughly eight times more alcoholic than beer
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

Drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

- Depressant
Distilled (concentrated) alcoholic beverages, sometimes called “spirit” or "hard liquor", roughly eight times more alcoholic than beer

26 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

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Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

As depressants—drugs which lower brain activity—they are prescribed to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)

Recreational drug use

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Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876)
Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India.
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India
A rational harm assessment of drugs<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Blakemore|first1=Colin|last2=Saulsbury|first2=William|last3=King|first3=Leslie A.|last4=Nutt|first4=David|date=2007-03-24|title=Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60464-4/abstract|journal=The Lancet|language=en|volume=369|issue=9566|pages=1047–1053|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|issn=0140-6736|pmid=17382831|s2cid=5903121}}</ref>
This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room
alt=A chart showing dependence potential versus safety ratio.|An analysis of the dangers of drugs<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xpZhjBuDkuwC&pg=PA149|title=Drugs and Society: U.S. Public Policy|last=Fish|first=Jefferson M.|date=2006|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=9780742542457|language=en}}</ref>
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol
Caffeinated alcoholic beverages, such as Vodka Red Bull, are widespread and legal routes of administration for multiple drugs.
Insufflation of powdered drug
Injection of heroin
Cocaine is a commonly used stimulant
alt=A chart showing relative drug harm.|A chart showing relative drug harm.

Generally, recreational drugs are divided into three categories: depressants (drugs that induce a feeling of relaxation and calmness); stimulants (drugs that induce a sense of energy and alertness); and hallucinogens (drugs that induce perceptual distortions such as hallucination).

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century

Insomnia

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Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century
Potential complications of insomnia.
Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.
Disability-adjusted life year for insomnia per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
no data
less than 25
25–30.25
30.25–36
36–41.5
41.5–47
47–52.5
52.5–58
58–63.5
63.5–69
69–74.5
74.5–80
more than 80

Abuse of over-the-counter or prescription sleep aids (sedative or depressant drugs) can produce rebound insomnia

Alcohol (drug)

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Psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits .

Psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits .

Symptoms of varying BAC levels. Additional symptoms may occur.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Alcohol was found to be the overall most dangerous drug, and the only drug that mostly damaged others.
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational substances. Alcohol was ranked 6th in dependence, 11th in physical harm, and 2nd in social harm.
Diagram of mucosal layer

Among other effects, alcohol produces happiness and euphoria, decreased anxiety, increased sociability, sedation, impairment of cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory function, and generalized depression of central nervous system function.

Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.

Psychoactive drug

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Psychoactive_Drugs_Legend.jpg: 1. caffeine

Psychoactive_Drugs_Legend.jpg: 1. caffeine

Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.
Zoloft (sertraline) is an SSRI antidepressant.
Timothy Leary was a leading proponent of spiritual hallucinogen use.
Illustration of the major elements of neurotransmission. Depending on its method of action, a psychoactive substance may block the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron (dendrite), or block reuptake or affect neurotransmitter synthesis in the pre-synaptic neuron (axon).
Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment (David Nutt et al. 2007).
Historical image of legal heroin bottle

Depressants ("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and opioids. This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and often evoke feelings of euphoria.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs like benzodiazepines commonly results in death from respiratory depression.

Hypoventilation

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Inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed respiratory gas exchange.

Inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed respiratory gas exchange.

Many different central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB, sedatives, and opioids produce respiratory depression when taken in large or excessive doses, or mixed with other depressants.

Playing can induce an intense state of happiness and contentment, like this young girl playing in the snow.

Euphoria

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Experience of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

Experience of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

Playing can induce an intense state of happiness and contentment, like this young girl playing in the snow.
A large dose of methamphetamine causes a drug-induced euphoria.

Certain depressants can produce euphoria; some of the euphoriant drugs in this class include alcohol in moderate doses, γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine.

Zolpidem tartrate, a common but potent sedative-hypnotic drug. Used for severe insomnia.

Hypnotic

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To induce sleep (or surgical anesthesia ) and to treat insomnia (sleeplessness).

To induce sleep (or surgical anesthesia ) and to treat insomnia (sleeplessness).

Zolpidem tartrate, a common but potent sedative-hypnotic drug. Used for severe insomnia.
Le Vieux Séducteur by .
(A corrupt old man tries to seduce a woman by urging her to take a hypnotic draught in her drink)

Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks; substance dependence is possible, and deaths from overdoses sometimes occur, especially in combination with alcohol and/or other depressants.

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins

Morphine

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Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins
Before the Morphine by Santiago Rusiñol
Morphine Hydrochloride Ampoule for Veterinary Use
Latex bleeding from a freshly-scored seed pod
Morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy
Chemical structure of morphine. The benzylisoquinoline backbone is shown in green.
Morphine structure showing its standard ring lettering and carbon numbering system.
Same structure, but in a three-dimensional perspective.
First generation production of alkaloids from licit latex-derived opium
Friedrich Sertürner
Advertisement for curing morphine addiction, c. 1900
An ampoule of morphine with integral needle for immediate use. Also known as a "syrette". From WWII. On display at the Army Medical Services Museum.
Example of different morphine tablets
Two capsules (5 mg & 10 mg) of morphine sulfate extended- release
1 milliliter ampoule containing 10 mg of morphine

However, recent studies have been able to show some impairments caused by morphine, which is not surprising, given that morphine is a central nervous system depressant.