Desalination

desalination plantwater desalinationdesalinizationdesalinateddesalination plantsdesalinatedesalinated waterdesalinatorsdesalinisationdesalinating
Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water.wikipedia
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Distillation

distillerydistilleddistilling
Desalination processes are usually driven by either thermal (in the case of distillation) or electrical (e.g., photovoltaic or wind power) as the primary energy types.

Seawater desalination in Australia

seawater desalinationAustraliadesalination plant
Desalination is particularly relevant in dry countries such as Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall behind dams for water.
Australia is the driest habitable continent on Earth and its installed desalination capacity has been increasing.

Multi-stage flash distillation

Multi-Stage Flashmulti stage flashmultistage flash distillation
The methods can be divided into membrane-based (e.g., reverse osmosis) and thermal-based (e.g., multistage flash distillation) methods. Water is evaporated and separated from sea water through multi-stage flash distillation, which is a series of flash evaporations.
Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers.

Brine

salt watersalt brinebrine water
The by-product of the desalination process is brine.
It is also a by-product of many industrial processes, such as desalination, and may pose an environmental risk due to its corrosive and toxic effects, so it requires wastewater treatment for proper disposal or further utilization (fresh water recovery).

Reverse osmosis

reverse-osmosisReverse Osmosis Water Purification UnitRO
The methods can be divided into membrane-based (e.g., reverse osmosis) and thermal-based (e.g., multistage flash distillation) methods.
In 1950, the University of California at Los Angeles first investigated desalination of seawater using semipermeable membranes.

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation.
Another type of water treatment is called desalination and is used mainly in dry areas with access to large bodies of saltwater.

Wave power

wave energywavewaves
CETO is a wave power technology that desalinates seawater using submerged buoys.
Wave power is the capture of energy of wind waves to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or pumping water.

Solar-powered desalination unit

ROSIsolar powered desalination unit
Off-grid solar-powered desalination units use solar energy to fill a buffer tank near a hill with seawater.
A solar-powered desalination unit produces potable water from saline water through direct or indirect methods of desalination powered by sunlight.

Flash evaporation

flashflash distillationflashing
Water is evaporated and separated from sea water through multi-stage flash distillation, which is a series of flash evaporations.
This type of flash evaporation is used in the desalination of brackish water or ocean water by "Multi-Stage Flash Distillation."

CETO

CETO Wave PowerPerth Wave Energy ProjectCarnegie Wave Energy Limited
CETO is a wave power technology that desalinates seawater using submerged buoys.
CETO is a wave-energy technology that converts kinetic energy from ocean swell into electrical power and (in CETO 5) directly desalinates freshwater through reverse osmosis.

Cogeneration

combined heat and powerCHPco-generation
Cogeneration is generating excess heat and electricity generation from a single process.
Partly expanded steam is then condensed in a heating condensor at a temperature level that is suitable e.g. district heating or water desalination.

Multiple-effect distillation

MEDmulti-effect evaporationmultiple effect
Multiple-effect distillation (MED) works through a series of steps called "effects".
Multiple-effect distillation or multi-effect distillation (MED) is a distillation process often used for sea water desalination.

Victorian Desalination Plant

Wonthaggi desalination plantdesalination plantMelbourne
A desalination plant now operates in Sydney, and the Wonthaggi desalination plant was under construction in Wonthaggi, Victoria.
The Victorian Desalination Plant (also referred to as the Victorian Desalination Project or Wonthaggi desalination plant) is a water desalination plant in Dalyston, on the Bass Coast in southern Victoria, Australia.

Reclaimed water

recycled waterwater reclamationwater recycling
Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation.

Irrigation

irrigatedirrigateirrigation system
Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation.
Irrigation water can come from groundwater (extracted from springs or by using wells), from surface water (withdrawn from rivers, lakes or reservoirs) or from non-conventional sources like treated wastewater, desalinated water, drainage water, or fog collection.

Claude "Bud" Lewis Carlsbad Desalination Plant

Carlsbad desalination plantdesalination plant
A January 17, 2008, article in the Wall Street Journal stated, "In November, Connecticut-based Poseidon Resources Corp. won a key regulatory approval to build the $300 million water-desalination plant in Carlsbad, north of San Diego. The facility would produce 190,000 cubic metres of drinking water per day, enough to supply about 100,000 homes. As of June 2012, the cost for the desalinated water had risen to $2,329 per acre-foot. Each $1,000 per acre-foot works out to $3.06 for 1,000 gallons, or $0.81 per cubic meter.
The Claude "Bud" Lewis Carlsbad Desalination Plant is a desalination plant that opened on December 14, 2015 in Carlsbad, California, adjacent to the north end of the Encina Power Station.

Adelaide Desalination Plant

Port Stanvac Desalination PlantAdelaidesea-water desalination plant
In December 2007, the South Australian government announced it would build the Adelaide Desalination Plant seawater desalination plant for the city of Adelaide, Australia, located at Port Stanvac.
The Adelaide Desalination plant (ADP), formerly known as the Port Stanvac Desalination Plant, is a sea water reverse osmosis desalination plant located in Lonsdale, South Australia which has the capacity to provide the city of Adelaide with up to 50% of its drinking water needs.

Sydney Desalination Plant

Kurnell Desalination Plantdesalination plantKurnell
Water there and at Queensland's Gold Coast Desalination Plant and Sydney's Kurnell Desalination Plant is withdrawn at 0.1 m/s, which is slow enough to let fish escape.
The Sydney Desalination Plant is a potable drinking water desalination plant that forms part of the water supply system of Greater Metropolitan Sydney.

Gold Coast Desalination Plant

Gold CoastTugunTugun Desalination Plant
Water there and at Queensland's Gold Coast Desalination Plant and Sydney's Kurnell Desalination Plant is withdrawn at 0.1 m/s, which is slow enough to let fish escape.
The Gold Coast desalination plant is a 125 ML/day reverse osmosis, water desalination plant located in Tugun, a seaside suburb of the Gold Coast.

Vapor-compression evaporation

evaporation and distillationthermocompressionvapor compression distillation
Vapor-compression evaporation involves using either a mechanical compressor or a jet stream to compress the vapor present above the liquid.
While this cannot compete in the marketplace with reverse osmosis or demineralization, vapor compression chiefly differs from these thanks to its ability to make clean water from saturated or even crystallizing brines with total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 650 g/L.

Vacuum distillation

distillationliquefyMethod
In vacuum distillation atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the temperature required to evaporate the water.
This is known as desalination.

Kuwait

State of KuwaitKuwaitiKWT
Kuwait produces a higher proportion of its water through desalination than any other country, totaling 100% of its water use.
Kuwait relies on water desalination as a primary source of fresh water for drinking and domestic purposes.

Electrodialysis

Electrodialysis utilizes electric potential to move the salts through pairs of charged membranes, which trap salt in alternating channels.

Soil salinity control

Salinity controlleachingsaline
More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.

Fresh water

freshwaterfreshlimnic
Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use.