Description logic

description logicsAttributive concept Language with ComplementsDescription Logic ModelingDLformal descriptionInferencing
Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages.wikipedia
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Artificial intelligence

AIartificially intelligentA.I.
DLs are used in artificial intelligence to describe and reason about the relevant concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web: the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and its profile is based on DLs.
The semantics of these are captured as description logic concepts, roles, and individuals, and typically implemented as classes, properties, and individuals in the Web Ontology Language.

Web Ontology Language

OWLWeb Ontology Language (OWL)OWL2
DLs are used in artificial intelligence to describe and reason about the relevant concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web: the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and its profile is based on DLs.
with formal semantics based on a description logic (DL).

Semantic Web

semanticsemanticsDataweb
DLs are used in artificial intelligence to describe and reason about the relevant concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web: the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and its profile is based on DLs. The DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) and Ontology Inference Layer (OIL) ontology languages for the Semantic Web can be viewed as
The term "Semantic Web" is often used more specifically to refer to the formats and technologies that enable it. The collection, structuring and recovery of linked data are enabled by technologies that provide a formal description of concepts, terms, and relationships within a given knowledge domain.

Ontology Inference Layer

OIL
The DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) and Ontology Inference Layer (OIL) ontology languages for the Semantic Web can be viewed as
OIL is based on concepts developed in Description Logic (DL) and frame-based systems and is compatible with RDFS.

First-order logic

predicate logicfirst-orderpredicate calculus
Many DLs are more expressive than propositional logic but less expressive than first-order logic. Like first-order logic (FOL), a syntax defines which collections of symbols are legal expressions in a description logic, and semantics determine meaning. Many DLs are decidable fragments of first-order logic (FOL) and are usually fragments of two-variable logic or guarded logic.
Decidable subsets of first-order logic are also studied in the framework of description logics.

SNOMED CT

Three major biomedical informatics terminology bases, SNOMED CT, GALEN, and GO, are expressible in (with additional role properties).
SNOMED CT's relational statements are basically triplets of the form Concept 1 – Relation x – Concept 2, with Relation x being from a small number of relation types (called linkage concepts), e.g. finding site, due to, etc. The interpretation of these triplets is (implicitly) based on the semantics of a simple Description logic (DL).

Unique name assumption

There are two features of description logic that are not shared by most other data description formalisms: DL does not make the Unique name assumption (UNA) or the Closed-world assumption (CWA).
The unique name assumption is a simplifying assumption made in some ontology languages and description logics.

Ontology (information science)

ontologyontologiesontological
DLs are used in artificial intelligence to describe and reason about the relevant concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web: the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and its profile is based on DLs. The DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) and Ontology Inference Layer (OIL) ontology languages for the Semantic Web can be viewed as

Frame language

frameframe-basedframes
This is a key difference from the frames paradigm where a frame specification declares and completely defines a class.
Description logic

Ronald J. Brachman

Ron Brachman
The first DL-based KR system was KL-ONE (by Ronald J. Brachman and Schmolze, 1985).
He is considered by some to be the godfather of Description Logic, the logic-based knowledge representation formalism underlying the Web Ontology Language OWL.]

Tbox

In DL, a distinction is drawn between the so-called TBox (terminological box) and the ABox (assertional box).
Description Logic Modeling

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
Like first-order logic (FOL), a syntax defines which collections of symbols are legal expressions in a description logic, and semantics determine meaning.
In ontology engineering, the term semantics refers to the meaning of concepts, properties, and relationships that formally represent real-world entities, events, and scenes in a logical underpinning, such as a description logic, and typically implemented in the Web Ontology Language.

Semantic parameterization

Semantic parameterization
The process yields a formalization of natural language sentences in Description Logic to answer the who, what and where questions in the Inquiry-Cycle Model (ICM) developed by Colin Potts and his colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Abox

In DL, a distinction is drawn between the so-called TBox (terminological box) and the ABox (assertional box).
Description Logic#Modeling

Ian Horrocks

Markus Krötzsch, František Simančík, Ian Horrocks: A Description Logic Primer. CoRR abs/1201.4089. 2012. ( PDF) A very first introduction for readers without a formal logic background.
His research focuses on knowledge representation and reasoning, particularly ontology languages, description logic and optimised tableaux decision procedures.

Semantic reasoner

reasonerreasoning enginereasoning
Semantic reasoner
The inference rules are commonly specified by means of an ontology language, and often a description logic language.

Two-variable logic

two-variable logic with counting
Many DLs are decidable fragments of first-order logic (FOL) and are usually fragments of two-variable logic or guarded logic.
This result generalizes results about the decidability of fragments of two-variable logic, such as certain description logics; however, some fragments of two-variable logic enjoy a much lower computational complexity for their satisfiability problems.

Modal logic

modalmodalitymodalities
Description logic is related to—but developed independently of—modal logic (ML).
Description logic

Formal concept analysis

concept latticeconcept analysisconcept learning
Formal concept analysis
Description logic

Knowledge representation and reasoning

knowledge representationrepresentationknowledge
Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages.

Propositional calculus

propositional logicpropositionalsentential logic
Many DLs are more expressive than propositional logic but less expressive than first-order logic.

Decision problem

undecidabledecision problemsdecision procedure
In contrast to the latter, the core reasoning problems for DLs are (usually) decidable, and efficient decision procedures have been designed and implemented for these problems.

Health informatics

medical informaticsbiomedical informaticshealth information
The most notable application of DLs and OWL is in biomedical informatics where DL assists in the codification of biomedical knowledge.

Expressive power (computer science)

expressive powerexpressiveexpressiveness
The expressivity is encoded in the label for a logic starting with one of the following basic logics: