Jannatul Baqi graveyard in Medina, Saudi Arabia
Imam Zain al-Abidin desecrated grave at Al-Baqi' in Saudi Arabia
Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

The destruction of heritage sites associated with early Islam is an ongoing phenomenon that has occurred mainly in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, particularly around the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.

- Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia

In 1727, the Emirate of Diriyah established in the area around Riyadh rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, sacking Karbala in 1802, and capturing Mecca in 1803.

- Saudi Arabia

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Mecca

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Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

The Saudi government has also carried out the destruction of several historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress.

Arabian Peninsula

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Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula
The geographical and political boundaries of the Arabian Peninsula
The constituent countries of Arabia
The Haraz Mountains in western Yemen include Arabia's highest mountain, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur near Sanaa
Ancient coins from Failaka Island, Kuwait
Sabaean inscription addressed to the god Almaqah, mentioning five Ancient Yemeni gods, two reigning sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC
Age of the Caliphs
Arab tribes before the spread of Islam
Portuguese colonies in Arabia.
Ottoman territories on the Arabian Peninsula acquired between 1517 and 1590 (See: list of territories)
Arabian peninsula during 1900s.
The peninsula in right before World War I.
Jebel Hafeet on the border of Oman and the UAE, near the city of Al Ain. It can be considered an outlier of Al Hajar Mountains.<ref name="Gardner 01-2004"/>
The northeastern Hajar Mountains, shared by Oman and the UAE, as seen from the desert of Sharjah
The Dhofar mountainous region in southeastern Oman, where the city of Salalah is located, is a tourist destination known for its annual khareef season
The Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, contiguous with the Omani Dhofar range, as seen from the city of Al-Mukalla
Terraced fields in the Harazi subrange of the Sarawat Mountains in western Yemen
Jabal Sawdah of the 'Asir range in southwestern Saudi Arabia, in Asir Region near the border with Yemen
The Faifa mountains in the Jazan Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.
The Midian Mountains of Tabuk Province, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, near the border with Jordan
The Aja subrange of the Shammar Mountains in the region of Ha'il, northern Saudi Arabia
The Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwayr mountainous region in the Najd, southwest of the Saudi capital city of Riyadh
The old city of Sanaa, Yemen. Peninsular Arabs trace their lineage to Qahtan, who was reportedly based in Yemen.
A map of the peninsula made in 1720 by the German publisher Christoph Weigel
Ain Zubaydah was built to water the pilgrims in Mecca by order of Zubaidah bint Ja'far
Omar Mosque in Dumat al-Jandal, Saudi Arabia.
The facade of a tomb with its details and architectural elements.
Qasr al Farid, tomb in Archeological site Mada'in Saleh, Al-`Ula, Saudi Arabia
Diriyah the capital of the first Saudi state
Dam of Ma'rib
Himyarite King Dhamar'ali Yahbur II
Arad Fort in Bahrain
Nizwa Fort in Oman
The ruins of Umayyad city in the historic Jumeirah district of Dubai.
Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), Bahrain.
The head and body of a Saluki is made of stone from the Al-Magar civilization, in the Neolithic period, (about 8000 BC).
Midian

Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen, as well as the southern portions of Iraq and Jordan.

The Emirate of Diriyah established in the area around Riyadh rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, sacking Karbala in 1802, and capturing Mecca in 1803.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Second-largest branch of Islam.

Second-largest branch of Islam.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Most of the Shīʿa sacred places and heritage sites in Saudi Arabia have been destroyed by the Al Saud-Wahhabi armies of the Ikhwan, the most notable being the tombs of the Imams located in the Al-Baqi' cemetery in 1925.

Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shīʿa communities, including the Twelver Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismāʿīlī Sulaymani and Zaydī Shīʿas of Najran.

Saad ibn Saud Palace

Diriyah

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Saad ibn Saud Palace
Old ruins in Diriyah
A historic fort in Diriyah

Diriyah (الدرعية), formerly romanized as Dereyeh and Dariyya, is a town in Saudi Arabia located on the north-western outskirts of the Saudi capital, Riyadh.

Despite Wahhabi destruction of many Islamic, cultural, and historical sites associated with the early history of Islam and the first generation of Muslims (Muhammad's family and his companions), the Saudi government undertook a large scale renovation of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's domain, turning it into a major tourist attraction.