Deutsche Mark

DMGerman markmarksDeutschmarkDEMmarkDeutschmarksDeutsche MarksGerman marksD-Mark
The Deutsche Mark (, "German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.wikipedia
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Mark (currency)

marksmarkMark (money)
The Deutsche Mark (, "German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
On 21 June 1948, the Deutsche Mark (German mark) was introduced by the Bank deutscher Länder in the western zones of occupation in Germany, which then formed West Germany.

Berlin Blockade

Berlin AirliftBerlin Air Liftblockade
The Soviets promptly cut off all road, rail and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin, starting the Berlin Blockade.
The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche Mark from West Berlin.

Euro

EUReuros
It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro.
The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more.

Eurozone

euro areaeuro zoneeuro-zone
The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro—in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months.
During 1979-1999, the D-Mark functioned as a de facto anchor for the ECU, meaning there was only a minor difference between pegging a currency against ECU and pegging it against the D-mark.

Bank deutscher Länder

Later in 1948, the Bank deutscher Länder ("Bank of the German States") assumed responsibility, followed in 1957 by the Deutsche Bundesbank.
The Bank deutscher Länder (Bank of German States), abbreviation BdL, was the first central bank for the Deutsche Mark.

East German mark

MarkMarksOstmark
In the Soviet occupation zone of Germany (later the German Democratic Republic), the East German mark (also named "Deutsche Mark" from 1948 to 1964 and colloquially referred to as the Ostmark—literally Eastmark) was introduced a few days afterwards in the form of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes with adhesive stamps to stop the flooding in of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes from the West.
on 20 June 1948, the Reichsmark and the Rentenmark were abolished in the western occupation zones and replaced with the Deutsche Mark issued by the Bank deutscher Länder (later the Deutsche Bundesbank).

Reichsmark

RMReichsmarksMarks
It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.

Wirtschaftswunder

economic miracleGerman economic miracle“Economic Miracle”
It became a source of national pride and an anchor for the country's economic prosperity, particularly during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder in the 1950s.
Beginning with the replacement of the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark in 1948 as legal tender (the Schilling was similarly re-established in Austria), a lasting period of low inflation and rapid industrial growth was overseen by the government led by West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and his Minister of Economics, Ludwig Erhard, who went down in history as the "father of the German economic miracle."

Marshall Plan

Marshall AidEuropean Recovery ProgramThe Marshall Plan
The currency reforms were simultaneous with the $1.4 billion in Marshall Plan money coming in from the United States, which primarily was used for investment.
The currency reform in 1948 was headed by the military government and helped Germany to restore stability by encouraging production.

Ludwig Erhard

ErhardChancellor ErhardChancellor Ludwig Erhard
The Deutsche Mark was officially introduced on Sunday, June 20, 1948 by Ludwig Erhard.
On 20 June 1948, the Deutsche Mark was introduced.

Deutsche Bundesbank

BundesbankGerman BundesbankGerman Federal Bank
Later in 1948, the Bank deutscher Länder ("Bank of the German States") assumed responsibility, followed in 1957 by the Deutsche Bundesbank. The Deutsche Bundesbank has guaranteed that all German marks in cash form may be changed into euros indefinitely, and one may do so in person at any branch of the Bundesbank in Germany.
The Bundesbank was established in 1957 and succeeded the Bank deutscher Länder, which introduced the Deutsche Mark on 20 June 1948.

West Berlin

West-BerlinWestBerlin
In response, the U.S. and Britain launched an airlift of food and coal and distributed the new currency in West Berlin as well.
For travel from West Berlin to Denmark, Sweden and West Germany via dedicated East German transit routes (Transitstrecke), East German border guards issued a transit visa for a fee of 5 Western Deutsche Mark.

European Exchange Rate Mechanism

ERM IIExchange Rate MechanismERM
The German mark's stability was greatly apparent in 1993, when speculation on the French franc and other European currencies caused a change in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism.
Between 1979 and 1999 the D-Mark functioned as a de facto anchor for the ECU, meaning there was only a minor difference between pegging a currency against the ECU and pegging it against the D-mark.

German reunification

reunification of Germanyreunificationreunified
The Deutsche Mark played an important role in the reunification of Germany.
This treaty is called Treaty Establishing a Monetary, Economic and Social Union between the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany ("Treaty Establishing a Monetary, Economic and Social Union between the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany"); it came into force on 1 July 1990, with the West German Deutsche Mark replacing the East German mark as the official currency of East Germany.

Saarland

SaarSaar regionSaar area
The new German member state of the Saarland maintained its currency, the Saar franc, which was in a currency union at par with the French franc.
After unification, the Saar franc remained as the territory's currency until West Germany's Deutsche Mark replaced it on 7 July 1959.

Hyperinflation

hyper-inflationinflationgalloping inflation
The introduction of the new currency was intended to protect western Germany from a second wave of hyperinflation and to stop the rampant barter and black market trade (where American cigarettes acted as currency).
In another currency reform a month later, 1 novi dinar was exchanged for 13 million dinars (1 novi dinar = 1 German mark at the time of exchange).

EURion constellation

EURionspecial patternThe EURion constellation
These were a hologram foil in the center of the note's obverse, a matted printing on the note's right obverse, showing its denomination (like on the reverse of the new €5, €10, and €20 banknotes), and the EURion constellation on the note's reverse.
On 50 DM German banknotes, the EURion circles formed the innermost circles in a background pattern of fine concentric circles.

Saar Protectorate

SaarSaarlandSaar (protectorate)
The population in the Saar Protectorate rejected in a referendum the proposal to turn it into a "European territory".
The treaty also stated that economic union with West Germany was to be completed by 1960, with the exact date of the replacement of the Saar and French franc by the Deutsche Mark being kept a secret called "Day X" (Tag X).

Konrad Adenauer

AdenauerChancellor AdenauerConrad Adenauer
West Germany then initially paid about 3 billion Mark to Israel and about 450 million to the Claims Conference, although payments continued after that, as new claims were made.

Clara Schumann

Clara WieckClaraClara Wieck Schumann
An image of Clara Schumann from an 1835 lithograph by Andreas Staub was featured on the 100 Deutsche Mark banknote from 1989 to 2002.

States of Germany

stateGerman statefederal state
The new German member state of the Saarland maintained its currency, the Saar franc, which was in a currency union at par with the French franc.
The Franco-Saarlander currency union ended on 6 July 1959, when the Deutsche Mark was introduced as legal tender in the Saarland.

East Germany

East GermanGerman Democratic RepublicGDR
In the Soviet occupation zone of Germany (later the German Democratic Republic), the East German mark (also named "Deutsche Mark" from 1948 to 1964 and colloquially referred to as the Ostmark—literally Eastmark) was introduced a few days afterwards in the form of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes with adhesive stamps to stop the flooding in of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes from the West.

List of commemorative coins of Germany

List of commemorative coins of the Federal Republic of Germany100 Euro gold coinsCoinage of the Federal Republic of Germany
There were a considerable number of commemorative silver DM 5 and DM 10 coins, which actually had the status of legal tender but were rarely seen outside of collectors' circles.
For regular coins, see Deutsche Mark and German euro coins.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Coins minted during the Second World War include the mint marks A (Berlin) and B (Vienna).
Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany, and was sped up by the liberalisation of European economic policy that the Marshall Plan (1948–1951) both directly and indirectly caused.

Theodor Heuss

Theodor Heuss FoundationTheodor-Heussleading delegate
His image appeared on one series of the two-mark coin and numerous streets and squares all over Germany have been named in his honour.