Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nationsdeveloping nationdevelopingless developed countriesunderdeveloped countriesdeveloping economieslow income countriesdeveloping economy
[[File:2018 UN Human Development Report.svg|thumb|World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).wikipedia
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Frontier markets

frontier marketFrontierfrontier" market
Developing countries include, in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market: newly industrialized countries, emerging markets, frontier markets, least developed countries.
A frontier market is a type of developing country which is more developed than the least developing countries, but too small, risky, or illiquid to be generally considered an emerging market.

Emerging market

emerging marketsemerging economiesemerging countries
Developing countries include, in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market: newly industrialized countries, emerging markets, frontier markets, least developed countries.
The term "frontier market" is used for developing countries with smaller, riskier, or more illiquid capital markets than "emerging".

Energy poverty

energy accessdisconnected from electricityuniversal energy access
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
It refers to the situation of large numbers of people in developing countries and some people in developed countries whose well-being is negatively affected by very low consumption of energy, use of dirty or polluting fuels, and excessive time spent collecting fuel to meet basic needs.

Neglected tropical diseases

neglected tropical diseaseneglected diseasesneglected disease
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Indoor air pollution in developing nations

Indoor air pollutiondeadly effects of smoke inhalationindoor air pollution (IAP)
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
Three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass, in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel.

Climate change adaptation

adaptationclimate adaptationadaptation to climate change
Effects of global warming (climate change) are expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries, as most of them have a high "climate vulnerability".
Adaptation is especially important in developing countries since those countries are predicted to bear the brunt of the effects of global warming.

International development

developmentglobal developmentdevelopment cooperation
Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries.
It is the basis for international classifications such as developed country, developing country and least developed country, and for a field of practice and research that in various ways engages with international development processes.

Development aid

development cooperationtechnical assistancedevelopment assistance
Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarysanitary conditions
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
This is partiularly applicable to developing countries.

Family planning

family-planningeducation and accessfamily planning clinic
Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, corruption at all government levels and a lack of so-called good governance.
About 99% of maternal deaths occur in less developed countries; less than one half occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost a third in South Asia.

Poverty

poorlow-incomeindigent
Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, corruption at all government levels and a lack of so-called good governance.
The proportion of the developing world's population living in extreme economic poverty fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001.

Water pollution

pollutionpollutedwater
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems.

Landlocked developing countries

landlockedlandlocked developing country
Landlocked Developing Countries
Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked.

Corruption

corruptsystemic corruptionanti-corruption
Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, corruption at all government levels and a lack of so-called good governance.
Governmental corruption of judiciary is broadly known in many transitional and developing countries because the budget is almost completely controlled by the executive.

World Bank high-income economy

high-income economyhigh-income countrieshigh-income
High income countries: $12,237 and above
Thus, a high-income country may be classified as either developed or developing.

Developed market

Developedadvanced marketsdeveloped countries
Developed countries and developed markets
This term is contrasted with developing market (Emerging markets and frontier markets are types of developing markets).

Heavily indebted poor countries

HIPCHeavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) InitiativeHighly Indebted Poor Country
Heavily indebted poor countries, a definition by a program of the IMF and World Bank
The heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) are a group of 37 developing countries with high levels of poverty and debt overhang which are eligible for special assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.

Third World

third-worldthird world countriesdeveloping world
Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world.
During the Cold War, the Third World referred to the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the nations not aligned with either the First World or the Second World.

World Bank

The World BankIBRDWB
In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated.
From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people in the developing world.

Hygiene

hygienistpersonal hygienehygienic
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
In developing countries, universal access to water and sanitation has been seen as the essential step in reducing the preventable infectious diseases burden, but it is now clear that this is best achieved by programs that integrate hygiene promotion with improvements in water quality and availability, and sanitation.

Aid

foreign aidinternational aidfood aid
Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries.
Development aid is aid given to support development in general which can be economic development or social development in developing countries.

Sustainable Development Goals

2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development GoalSustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
The Sustainable Development Goals, by the United Nations, were set up to help overcome many of these problems.
Women make up about 43% of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, and over 50% in parts of Asia and Africa.

Global South

Southcountries of the southsouthern
The term "Global South" began to be used more widely since about 2004.
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Developing World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions."

Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents.
Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides; also including human feces from open defecation – still a major problem in many developing countries); groundwater pollution from waste disposal and leaching into the ground, including from pit latrines and septic tanks; eutrophication and littering.

Urbanization

urbanisationurbanizedUrban
For example, as populations expand in poorer countries, rural people are moving to cities in an extensive urban migration that is resulting in the creation of slums.
It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized.