Developmental psychology

developmental psychologistchild psychologychild psychologisthuman developmentdevelopmentaldevelopmentearly childhood developmentpsychological developmentdevelopmental psychologistschild
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.wikipedia
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Adolescence

adolescentteenagerteenage
Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan.
Developmental psychologists might focus on changes in relations with parents and peers as a function of school structure and pubertal status.

Child development

developmentchildhood developmentdevelopmental
Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology.
Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the conclusion of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.

Developmental stage theories

stagesstages of developmentdevelopmental stage theory
Ongoing debates in regards to developmental psychology include biological essentialism vs. neuroplasticity and stages of development vs. dynamic systems of development.
One of the major controversies in developmental psychology centres whether development is continuous or discontinuous.

Erik Erikson

Erik H. EriksonEriksonErik Homburger Erikson
Influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, and Lev Vygotsky.
Erik Homburger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology.
Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as cognitive science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, linguistics, and economics.

Child psychopathology

child and adolescentChild and adolescent psychologychild psychiatrist
Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology.
Mental health providers who work with children and adolescents are informed by research in developmental psychology, clinical child psychology, and family systems.

Esther Thelen

Influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, and Lev Vygotsky.
Esther Thelen (May 20, 1941 – December 29, 2004) was an expert in the field of developmental psychology.

Lev Vygotsky

VygotskyVygotskianLev Semenovich Vygotsky
Influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, and Lev Vygotsky.
Despite his claim for a "new psychology" that he foresaw as a "science of the Superman" of the Communist future, Vygotsky's main work was in developmental psychology.

Cultural psychology

cultural psychologistculturalidentity
Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology.
Cultural psychology research informs several fields within psychology, including social psychology, cultural-historical psychology, developmental psychology, and cognitive psychology.

Mary Ainsworth

AinsworthStrange SituationMary D. Ainsworth
Later Mary Ainsworth developed the Strange Situation protocol and the concept of the secure base.
Mary Dinsmore Ainsworth (née Salter; December 1, 1913 – March 21, 1999) was an American-Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in the development of the attachment theory.

Evolutionary developmental psychology

CriticismDomain-specificity vs. domain-generality in evolutionary developmental psychology
One of the ways this relationship has been explored in recent years is through the emerging field of evolutionary developmental psychology.
It involves the study of both the genetic and environmental mechanisms that underlie the development of social and cognitive competencies, as well as the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.

Universal grammar

linguistic nativismnativismuniversal
Linguist Noam Chomsky asserts that, evidenced by the lack of sufficient information in the language input, there is a universal grammar that applies to all human languages and is pre-specified.
With more linguistic stimuli received in the course of psychological development, children then adopt specific syntactic rules that conform to UG.

Essentialism

essentialistessentialessentialized
Ongoing debates in regards to developmental psychology include biological essentialism vs. neuroplasticity and stages of development vs. dynamic systems of development.
Essentialism has emerged as an important concept in psychology, particularly developmental psychology.

Epigenetics

epigeneticepigeneticallyepigenetic regulation
It involves the study of both the genetic and environmental mechanisms that underlie the development of social and cognitive competencies, as well as the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions.
In a sense somewhat unrelated to its use in biological disciplines, the term "epigenetic" has also been used in developmental psychology to describe psychological development as the result of an ongoing, bi-directional interchange between heredity and the environment.

Learning

associative learninglearnlearning process
A major question in this area is whether or not certain properties of human language are specified genetically or can be acquired through learning.
There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.

Urie Bronfenbrenner

BronfenbrennerBronfenbrenner, Urie.Uri Bronfenbrenner
Influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, and Lev Vygotsky.
He worked with 12 other professionals from various fields such as mental and physical health, education, social work, and developmental psychology.

Isolates

isolatedisolates, liaisons
Secondary stressors commonly identified include the tendency for children with poor motor skills to be less likely to participate in organized play with other children and more likely to feel socially isolated.
Isolates is a term used in developmental psychology and family studies, to describe members of a study group, usually child through young adult, who do not actively participate in cliques or friendship groups.

Evolutionary psychology

evolutionary psychologistevolutionary psychologistsevolutionary
EDP is closely linked to the theoretical framework of evolutionary psychology (EP), but is also distinct from EP in several domains, including research emphasis (EDP focuses on adaptations of ontogeny, as opposed to adaptations of adulthood) and consideration of proximate ontogenetic and environmental factors (i.e., how development happens) in addition to more ultimate factors (i.e., why development happens), which are the focus of mainstream evolutionary psychology.
From psychology there are the primary streams of developmental, social and cognitive psychology.

Language acquisition

language learningfirst language acquisitionacquisition
Within these three dimensions are a broad range of topics including motor skills, executive functions, moral understanding, language acquisition, social change, personality, emotional development, self-concept, and identity formation.
Language acquisition has been studied from the perspective of developmental psychology and neuroscience, which looks at learning to use and understand language parallel to a child's brain development.

Fuzzy-trace theory

According to Fuzzy-trace theory, we have two separate memory processes: verbatim and gist.
The theory has been used in areas such as cognitive psychology, human development, and social psychology to explain, for instance, false memory and its development, probability judgments, medical decision making, risk perception and estimation, and biases and fallacies in decision making.

Educational psychology

educational psychologisteducationaleducation
Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and cultural psychology.
To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age, educational psychology develops and applies theories of human development.

James Mark Baldwin

BaldwinBaldwin, James MarkDictionary of Philosophy and Psychology
James Mark Baldwin, who wrote essays on topics that included Imitation: A Chapter in the Natural History of Consciousness and Mental Development in the Child and the Race: Methods and Processes, was heavily involved in the theory of developmental psychology.
Baldwin was prominent among early experimental psychologists and was voted by his peers as the fifth most important psychologist in America in a 1903 survey conducted by James McKeen Cattell, but it was his contributions to developmental psychology that were the most important.

Longitudinal study

longitudinal studieslongitudinallongitudinal research
In a longitudinal study, a researcher observes many individuals born at or around the same time (a cohort) and carries out new observations as members of the cohort age.
Longitudinal studies are often used in social-personality and clinical psychology, to study rapid fluctuations in behaviors, thoughts, and emotions from moment to moment or day to day; in developmental psychology, to study developmental trends across the life span; and in sociology, to study life events throughout lifetimes or generations.

Piaget's theory of cognitive development

theory of cognitive developmentsensorimotorsensorimotor stage
Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggested that some early reflexes are building blocks for infant sensorimotor development.
It was first created by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980).