Dharma

DhammaDharmicdharmasdhammālawDharmdharamhis teachingphenomena
Dharma (धर्म, ; धम्म, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others.wikipedia
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Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and "right way of living".
It is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others.
Widely observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism, meditation, and the cultivation of the Paramitas (perfections, or virtues).

Tirukkuṛaḷ

TirukkuralThirukkuralKural text
The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is solely based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma.
The text is divided into three books, each with aphoristic teachings on virtue (aram, dharma), wealth (porul, artha) and love (inbam, kama).

Sikhism

SikhSikhsSikh religion
dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others.
Guru Nanak's ideal is the total exposure of one's being to the divine Name and a total conforming to Dharma or the "Divine Order".

Aram (Kural book)

aramBook of VirtueBook I
The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is solely based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma.
Aṟam, the Tamil term that loosely corresponds to the English term 'virtue', correlates with the first of the four ancient Indian values of dharma, artha, kama and moksha.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, maintain, keep",.
The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, music, drama, scientific, technical and other texts.

Ṛta

Rtaṛtár'ta
In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and "right way of living".
Conceptually, it is closely allied to the injunctions and ordinances thought to uphold it, collectively referred to as Dharma, and the action of the individual in relation to those ordinances, referred to as Karma – two terms which eventually eclipsed Ṛta in importance as signifying natural, religious and moral order in later Hinduism.

Adharma

AdharmicDharma and Adharmaevil
The antonym of dharma is adharma.
Adharma is the Sanskrit antonym of dharma.

Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription

Kandahar Bilingual InscriptionKandahar Edict of AshokaBilingual inscription of Kandahar
When the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" (he used Prakrit word Dhaṃma) into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia (εὐσέβεια, piety, spiritual maturity, or godliness) in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, and the Aramaic word Qsyt ("Truth") in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription.
In the Edict, Ashoka advocates the adoption of "Piety" (using the Greek term Eusebeia for "Dharma") to the Greek community.

Indian philosophy

philosophyIndianIndian philosopher
Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion.
Indian philosophies share many concepts such as dharma, karma, samsara, reincarnation, dukkha, renunciation, meditation, with almost all of them focussing on the ultimate goal of liberation of the individual through diverse range of spiritual practices (moksha, nirvana).

Tao

DaoWay
Ideas in parts overlapping to Dharma are found in other ancient cultures: such as Chinese Tao, Egyptian Maat, Sumerian Me.
Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars, but the Tao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.

Yuga dharma

Yuga-Dharma
In Hinduism, dharma includes two aspects – sanātana dharma, which is the overall, unchanging and abiding principals of dharma and is not subject to change, and yuga dharma, which is valid for a yuga, an epoch or age as established by Hindu tradition.
Yuga Dharma is one aspect of Dharma, as understood by Hindus.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
In Buddhism, dharma incorporates the teachings and doctrines of the founder of Buddhism, the Buddha.
Another one of his edicts (Minor Rock Edict No. 3) mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era.

Indian religions

Dharmic religionsIndian religionreligion
dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion.
All four traditions have notions of karma, dharma, samsara, moksha and various forms of Yoga.

Historical Vedic religion

BrahmanismVedicVedic religion
The concept of dharma was already in use in the historical Vedic religion, and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia.
The term dharma was already used in the later Brahmanical thoughts, where it was conceived as an aspect of ṛta.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem,, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm" (in the literal sense of prods or poles).
The text introduced the prized concepts such as Rta (active realization of truth, cosmic harmony) which inspired the later Hindu concept of Dharma.

Apastamba Dharmasutra

ApastambaApastamba SutraĀpastamba
For example, Apastamba Dharmasutra states:
Āpastamba Dharmasūtra is a Sanskrit text and one of the oldest Dharma-related texts of Hinduism that have survived into the modern age from the 1st-millennium BCE.

Sanātanī

SanataniSanatanSanatan Dharma
In Hinduism, dharma includes two aspects – sanātana dharma, which is the overall, unchanging and abiding principals of dharma and is not subject to change, and yuga dharma, which is valid for a yuga, an epoch or age as established by Hindu tradition.
Sanātana dharma (Devanagari: सनातन धर्म meaning "eternal dharma" or "eternal order") is the original name of Hinduism.

Daena

DaēnāDenDēn
However, it is thought that the Daena of Zoroastrianism, also meaning the "eternal Law" or "religion", is related to Sanskrit "Dharma".
It is thought that the "Daena" of Zoroastrianism, is related to Sanskrit "Dharma", also meaning "the Law".

Manusmriti

Manu SmritiManusmṛtiLaws of Manu
Of these, the most cited one is Manusmriti, which describes the four Varnas, their rights and duties.
The metrical text is in Sanskrit, is variously dated to be from the 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE, and it presents itself as a discourse given by Manu (Svayambhuva) and Bhrigu on dharma topics such as duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and others.

Pali

PāliPali languagePāḷi
In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
The literal meaning is therefore: "The dharmas have mind as their leader, mind as their chief, are made of/by mind. If [someone] either speaks or acts with a corrupted mind, from that [cause] suffering goes after him, as the wheel [of a cart follows] the foot of a draught animal."

Atmatusti

In this case, "atmatusti" is the source of dharma in Hinduism, that is the good person reflects and follows what satisfies his heart, his own inner feeling, what he feels driven to.
Atmatusti is a source of dharma in Hinduism, usually translated into English as being “what is pleasing to oneself”.

Puranas

PuranaPuranicSthala Purana
In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals; in later Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and the Epics, the meaning became refined, richer, and more complex, and the word was applied to diverse contexts.

Artha

wealth
The other three strivings are Artha – the striving for means of life such as food, shelter, power, security, material wealth, etc.; Kama – the striving for sex, desire, pleasure, love, emotional fulfillment, etc.; and Moksa – the striving for spiritual meaning, liberation from life-rebirth cycle, self-realisation in this life, etc. The four stages are neither independent nor exclusionary in Hindu dharma.
In Hindu traditions, Artha is connected to the three other aspects and goals of human life: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization).

Dharmaśāstra

DharmashastraDharmasutraDharmasastra
The Dharmashastra is a record of these guidelines and rules.
Dharmaśhāstra is a genre of Sanskrit theological texts, and refers to the treatises (shastras) of Hinduism on dharma.