Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabeticsdiabetologisttype 2 diabetesDiabetes Control and Complications TrialDCCTdiabetic peoplediabetologyUnited Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period.wikipedia
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Diabetic ketoacidosis

DKAketoacidosisacidosis
Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

nonketotic hyperosmolar comahyperosmolar hyperglycemic statesHyperosmolar nonketotic coma
Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis.

Hyperglycemia

high blood sugarhyperglycaemiahyperglycemic
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period.
A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes.

Diabetic retinopathy

diabetic macular edemaretinopathydamage to the eyes
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic foot ulcer

Neuropathic ulcerfoot ulcerfoot ulcers
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes mellitus is one such metabolic disorder that impedes the normal steps of the wound healing process.

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation.

Polyphagia

hyperphagiaincreased appetitehyperphagic
Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
It can be caused by disorders such as diabetes, Kleine–Levin syndrome (a malfunction in the hypothalamus), and the genetic disorders Prader–Willi syndrome and Bardet–Biedl syndrome.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycaemiahypoglycemic
Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.
The most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin and sulfonylureas.

Polydipsia

increased thirstexcessive thirstIncreased drinking
Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Polydipsia can be characteristic of diabetes mellitus, often as an initial symptom.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitusdiabetesdiabetes in pregnancy
Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and "other specific types".
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.

Bariatric surgery

weight loss surgerybody contouringobesity surgery
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes.
Long-term studies show the procedures cause significant long-term loss of weight, recovery from diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, and a mortality reduction from 40% to 23%.

Complications of diabetes

diabetes complicationsdiabetic complicationscomplication of diabetes mellitus
If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.
Complications of diabetes mellitus are acute and chronic.

Regular insulin

Insulin injection (soluble)Novolin Rinsulin
Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.
It is used to treat diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.

Weight loss

weight-losslose weightlosing weight
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Weight loss is the main treatment for obesity, and there is substantial evidence this can prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes type 2 with a 7-10% weight loss and manage cardiometabolic health for diabetic people with a 5-15% weight loss.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, adipose tissue and muscle, except smooth muscle, in which insulin acts via the IGF-1.
Increased blood glucose can after a while destroy the binding capacities of these proteins, and therefore reduce the amount of insulin secreted, causing diabetes.

Acetone

(CH 3 ) 2 COacetonylCH 3 COCH 3
People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts.

Healthy diet

healthy eatingbalanced diethealthy food
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.
An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.

Blurred vision

blurry visionblurryblurred
In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin.

Diabetic dermadrome

Diabetic dermadromesdiabetic skin conditions
A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
Diabetic dermadromes constitute a group of cutaneous conditions commonly seen in people with diabetes with longstanding disease.

Diabetic nephropathy

diabetic kidney diseasenephropathydiabetic nephropathies
Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic neuropathy

neuropathydiabetic neuropathiesdiabetic peripheral neuropathy
Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.

Cataract

cataractscataract surgerycongenital cataracts
Diabetes also increases the risk of having glaucoma, cataracts, and other eye problems.
Risk factors include diabetes, smoking tobacco, prolonged exposure to sunlight, and alcohol.

Polyuria

increased urinationdiuresisfrequent urination
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
The most common cause of polyuria in both adults and children is uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, which causes osmotic diuresis, when glucose levels are so high that glucose is excreted in the urine.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in people with diabetes are due to coronary artery disease.
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.

Type 1 diabetes

diabetes mellitus type 1type I diabetesjuvenile diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and "other specific types".
Type 1 diabetes (T1D), also known as juvenile diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which very little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas.