Diabetes insipidus

diabetesCentral diabetes insipidusdiabeticnephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.wikipedia
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Central diabetes insipidus

neurogenic diabetes insipidusCentral DIdiabetes insipidus as a result of a brain disorder
Central DI (CDI) is due to a lack of the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).
Central diabetes insipidus, also called neurogenic diabetes insipidus, is a type of diabetes insipidus due to a lack of vasopressin (ADH) production in the brain.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

DI due to the kidneysdiabetes insipidus is due to kidney problemsDiabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 1
Nephrogenic DI (NDI) occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney.

Clinical urine tests

urinalysisurine testurine sample
Diagnosis is often based on urine tests, blood tests and the fluid deprivation test.

Desmopressin

DDAVPdesmopressin acetateMinirin
In central and gestational DI, treatment is with desmopressin.
Desmopressin, sold under the trade name DDAVP among others, is a medication used to treat diabetes insipidus, bedwetting, hemophilia A, von Willebrand disease, and high blood urea levels.

Polydipsia

increased thirstexcessive thirstIncreased drinking
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.
Diabetes insipidus ("tasteless" diabetes, as opposed to diabetes mellitus) can also cause polydipsia.

Thirst

Effects of thirstdrowthfeeling thirsty
Dipsogenic DI is a result of excessive fluid intake due to damage to the hypothalamic thirst mechanism.
Excessive thirst, called polydipsia, along with excessive urination, known as polyuria, may be an indication of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.

Fluid deprivation test

Diagnosis is often based on urine tests, blood tests and the fluid deprivation test.
A fluid or water deprivation test is a medical test which can be used to determine whether the patient has diabetes insipidus as opposed to other causes of polydipsia (a condition of excessive thirst that causes an excessive intake of water).

Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemic
However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium that may lead to hypokalemia.
Causes of hypokalemia include vomiting, diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet.

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy

Diabetes insipidus is also associated with some serious diseases of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy.
There have also been reports of diabetes insipidus complicating this condition.

Lithium (medication)

lithiumlithium saltslithium salt
It is seen in lithium toxicity, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, or release of ureteral obstruction.
Serious side effects include hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and lithium toxicity.

Water intoxication

water poisoningoverhydrationcan be dangerous
Treatment with desmopressin may lead to water intoxication.
Patients with diabetes insipidus are particularly vulnerable due to rapid fluid processing.

Aquaporin

aquaporinsaquaporin 5water channels
ADH acts by increasing water permeability in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules; specifically, it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade.
Genetic defects involving aquaporin genes have been associated with several human diseases including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and neuromyelitis optica.

Adipsia

inappropriately decreased thirst
Whilst diabetes insipidus usually occurs with polydipsia, it can also rarely occur not only in the absence of polydipsia but in the presence of its opposite, adipsia (or hypodipsia).
Adipsia may be seen in conditions such as diabetes insipidus and may result in hypernatremia.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Diabetes mellitus is a separate condition with an unrelated mechanism, though both can result in the production of large amounts of urine.
The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination.

Hypernatremia

high blood sodiumHypernatraemiasodium retention
Measurement of blood electrolytes can reveal a high sodium level (hypernatremia as dehydration develops).
Normal volume hypernatremia can be due to fever, inappropriately decreased thirst, prolonged increased breath rate, diabetes insipidus, and from lithium among other causes.

Hydrochlorothiazide

HydrodiurilOreticApresazide
A thiazide diuretic, such as chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide, can be used to create mild hypovolemia which encourages salt and water uptake in proximal tubule and thus improve nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Other uses include diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis, and to decrease the risk of kidney stones in those with a high calcium level in the urine.

Primary polydipsia

Psychogenic polydipsiaexcessive fluid intakepsychogenic primary polydipsia
Dipsogenic DI is a result of excessive fluid intake due to damage to the hypothalamic thirst mechanism.
As a diagnosis of exclusion, a diagnosis of primary polydipsia may be the result of elimination of the possibility of diseases causing similar signs and symptoms, such as diabetes insipidus.

Chlortalidone

chlorthalidone(Chlorthalidone)Clortalidone
A thiazide diuretic, such as chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide, can be used to create mild hypovolemia which encourages salt and water uptake in proximal tubule and thus improve nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Chlortalidone, also known as chlorthalidone, is a diuretic medication used to treat high blood pressure, swelling including that due to heart failure, liver failure, and nephrotic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, and renal tubular acidosis.

Vasopressin

antidiuretic hormoneADHarginine vasopressin
Central DI (CDI) is due to a lack of the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).
Vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus related to low levels of antiduretic hormone.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.

Polyuria

increased urinationdiuresisfrequent urination
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.

Dehydration

dehydrateddehydratedehydrating
Measurement of blood electrolytes can reveal a high sodium level (hypernatremia as dehydration develops). Complications may include dehydration or seizures.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
Complications may include dehydration or seizures.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
This can be due to injury to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland or genetics.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Nephrogenic DI (NDI) occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin.