Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabeticsdiabetologisttype 2 diabetesDCCTdiabetic peoplediabetologyComplications from diabetesdiabetes care
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.wikipedia
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Diabetic ketoacidosis

ketoacidosisacidosisDKA
Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. People (usually with type 1 DM) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.

Hyperglycemia

high blood sugarhyperglycaemiahyperglycemic
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes.

Diabetic retinopathy

diabetic macular edemaretinopathydamage to the eyes
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic foot ulcer

foot ulcerfoot ulcersdiabetes foot ulcers
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes mellitus is one such metabolic disorder that impedes the normal steps of the wound healing process.

Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation.

Polyphagia

hyperphagiaincreased appetitehyperphagic
Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
It can be caused by disorders such as diabetes, Kleine–Levin syndrome (a malfunction in the hypothalamus), and the genetic disorders Prader–Willi syndrome and Bardet–Biedl syndrome.

Diabetes mellitus type 1

type 1 diabetesjuvenile diabetestype 1
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas' failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which very little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycemichypoglycaemia
Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.
The most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin and sulfonylureas.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes Mellitusdiabetesdiabetes in pregnancy
Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.

Polydipsia

increased thirstexcessive thirstIncreased drinking
Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
This symptom is characteristically found in diabetics, often as one of the initial symptoms, and in those who fail to take their anti-diabetic medications or whose condition is poorly controlled.

Bariatric surgery

weight loss surgeryBariatricbody contouring
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
Long-term studies show the procedures cause significant long-term loss of weight, recovery from diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, and a mortality reduction from 40% to 23%.

Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.
Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.

Weight loss

weight-losslose weightlosing weight
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks, increase fitness, and may delay the onset of diabetes.

Regular insulin

insulinInsulin injectioninsulin injections
Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections.
It is used to treat diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.

Complications of diabetes mellitus

diabetes complicationsdiabetic complicationscomplication of diabetes mellitus
If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.
Complications of diabetes mellitus are acute and chronic.

Insulin

insulin genehuman insulinINS
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
Increased blood glucose can after a while destroy the binding capacities of these proteins, and therefore reduce the amount of insulin secreted, causing diabetes.

Healthy diet

healthy eatingbalanced diethealthy
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.
Other WHO recommendations include ensuring that foods chosen have sufficient vitamins and certain minerals, avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances, avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs), and replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats in the diet can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes.

Blurred vision

blurry visionblurryblurred
In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin.
Diabetes—Poorly controlled blood sugar can lead to temporary swelling of the lens of the eye, resulting in blurred vision. While it resolves if blood sugar control is reestablished, it is believed repeated occurrences promote the formation of cataracts (which are not temporary).

Diabetic dermadrome

diabetic skin conditions
A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
Diabetic dermadromes constitute a group of cutaneous conditions commonly seen in people with diabetes with longstanding disease.

Acetone

methyl ketonepropanone(CH 3 ) 2 CO
People (usually with type 1 DM) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts.

Diabetic nephropathy

diabetic kidney diseasenephropathydiabetic nephropathies
Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic neuropathy

neuropathydiabetic neuropathiesdiabetes
Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.

Polyuria

diuresisincreased urinationfrequent urination
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
The most common cause of polyuria in both adults and children is uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, which causes osmotic diuresis, when glucose levels are so high that glucose is excreted in the urine.

Cataract

cataractscongenital cataractsjuvenile cataract
Diabetes also increases the risk of having glaucoma, cataracts, and other eye problems.
Risk factors include diabetes, smoking tobacco, prolonged exposure to sunlight, and alcohol.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease.
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.