Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitusdiabetestype 2type-2 diabetestype II diabetes mellitustype two diabetesType 2 diabeticdiabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.wikipedia
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Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression.

Insulin

insulin genehuman insulinINS
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus the destruction of beta cells is less pronounced than in type 1 diabetes, and is not due to an autoimmune process.

Metformin

Avandametmetformin hydrochloridedimethylbiguanide
If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended. In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes.
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, being equally effective as repaglinide and more effective than all other oral diabetes mellitus type 2 drugs.

Diabetes mellitus type 1

type 1 diabetesjuvenile diabetestype 1
Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, obesity or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.

Glucose test

fasting blood glucosefasting plasma glucosefasting blood sugar
Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).
Abnormally high/low levels, slow return to normal levels from either of these conditions and/or inability to normalize blood sugar levels means that the person being tested probably has some kind of medical condition like type 2 diabetes which is caused by cellular insensitivity to insulin.

Glycated hemoglobin

hemoglobin A1CHbA1cglycosylated hemoglobin
Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).
However, a trial designed specifically to determine whether reducing HbA 1c below the normal 6%, using primarily insulin and sulfonylureas (both known to easily drive blood sugar too low), would reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes found higher mortality—the trial was terminated early.

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

nonketotic hyperosmolar comahyperosmolar hyperglycemic statesHyperglycemic hyperosmolar state
The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.
The main risk factor is a history of diabetes mellitus type 2.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young

monogenic diabetesMaturity-onset diabetes of the youngMODY3
These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, among others.
MODY is often referred to as "monogenic diabetes" to distinguish it from the more common types of diabetes (especially type 1 and type 2), which involve more complex combinations of causes involving multiple genes and environmental factors.

Acromegaly

acromegalicgrowth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomaacromegalia
Other health problems that are associated include: acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, and certain cancers such as glucagonomas.
Complications of the disease may include type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.

Body mass index

BMIbody mass index (BMI)body-mass index
Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a body mass index of greater than 25), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.
Commonly accepted BMI ranges are underweight: under 18.5 kg/m 2, normal weight: 18.5 to 25, overweight: 25 to 30, obese: over 30. People of Asian descent have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than those of European descent, with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease at BMIs lower than the WHO cut-off point for overweight, 25 kg/m 2, although the cut-off for observed risk varies among different Asian populations.

Beta cell

beta cellsβ cellsβ-cell
In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
In patients with type I or type II diabetes, beta-cell mass and function are diminished, leading to insufficient insulin secretion and hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia

high blood sugarhyperglycaemiahyperglycemic
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
In diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia is usually caused by low insulin levels (Diabetes mellitus type 1) and/or by resistance to insulin at the cellular level (Diabetes mellitus type 2), depending on the type and state of the disease.

Bariatric surgery

weight loss surgeryBariatricbody contouring
Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes in those who are obese.
Given the remarkable rate of diabetes remission with bariatric surgery, there is considerable interest in offering this intervention to people with type 2 diabetes who have a lower BMI than is generally required for bariatric surgery, but high quality evidence is lacking and optimal timing of the procedure is uncertain.

Acanthosis nigricans

acral acanthosis nigricansacral acanthotic anomalymalignant acanthosis nigricans
Other complications include acanthosis nigricans, sexual dysfunction, and frequent infections.
It typically occurs in individuals younger than age 40, may be genetically inherited, and is associated with obesity or endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, or Cushing's disease.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOSpolycystic ovariespolycystic ovarian syndrome
High-risk groups in the United States include: those over 45 years old; those with a first degree relative with diabetes; some ethnic groups, including Hispanics, African-Americans, and Native-Americans; a history of gestational diabetes; polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.
Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XCardio metabolic riskinsulin resistance
High-risk groups in the United States include: those over 45 years old; those with a first degree relative with diabetes; some ethnic groups, including Hispanics, African-Americans, and Native-Americans; a history of gestational diabetes; polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes Mellitusdiabetesdiabetes in pregnancy
Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. High-risk groups in the United States include: those over 45 years old; those with a first degree relative with diabetes; some ethnic groups, including Hispanics, African-Americans, and Native-Americans; a history of gestational diabetes; polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.
Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.

TCF7L2

TCF
The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.
The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the TCF7L2 gene, rs7903146, is, to date, the most significant genetic marker associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
Managing other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a person's life expectancy.
Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes and an underactive thyroid.

Thiazide

thiazide diureticthiazide diureticsthiazides
Some of the medications include: glucocorticoids, thiazides, beta blockers, atypical antipsychotics, and statins.
Thiazides have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to increase risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.

Acarbose

In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes.
Acarbose (INN) is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2 and, in some countries, prediabetes.

Sulfonylurea

sulfonylureassulphonylureasulphonylureas
Other classes of medications include: sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.
They are antidiabetic drugs widely used in the management of diabetes mellitus type 2.

Thiazolidinedione

thiazolidinedionesthiazolidethiazolinidinedione
Other classes of medications include: sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.
The term usually refers to a family of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 that were introduced in the late 1990s.