Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marksdiacriticalaccentsaccenteddiacritic markdiacritic marksdotaccent mark
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph.wikipedia
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Diaeresis (diacritic)

diaeresisumlauttrema
Examples are the diaereses in the borrowed French words naïve and Noël, which show that the vowel with the diaeresis mark is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel; the acute and grave accents, which can indicate that a final vowel is to be pronounced, as in saké and poetic breathèd; and the cedilla under the "c" in the borrowed French word façade, which shows it is pronounced rather than.
The diaeresis (also known as the tréma) and the umlaut are two homoglyphic diacritical marks that consist of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

Arabic diacritics

harakatsukunkasrah
Vowel pointing systems, namely the Arabic harakat ( ـِ,ـُ,ـَ, etc.) and the Hebrew niqqud ( ַ◌, ֶ◌, ִ◌, ֹ◌, ֻ◌, etc.) systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet. The Indic virama ( ् etc.) and the Arabic sukūn ( ـْـ ) mark the absence of vowels.
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam - ', consonant pointing and tashkil - ', supplementary diacritics.

Niqqud

vowel pointsvocalizationnikkud
Vowel pointing systems, namely the Arabic harakat ( ـِ,ـُ,ـَ, etc.) and the Hebrew niqqud ( ַ◌, ֶ◌, ִ◌, ֹ◌, ֻ◌, etc.) systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud ( or ) is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

Virama

Halanthalantavirāma
The Indic virama ( ् etc.) and the Arabic sukūn ( ـْـ ) mark the absence of vowels.
Virama is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, including Devanagari and Bengali script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.

Pinyin

Hanyu PinyinpPīnyīn
In the Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur.
The system includes four diacritics denoting tones.

Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabetical
In other alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions.
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants.

Glyph

glyphscharactercharacters
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph.
However, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters.

Titlo

titlatitle
Other uses include the Early Cyrillic titlo stroke ( ◌҃ ) and the Hebrew gershayim ( ״ ), which, respectively, mark abbreviations or acronyms, and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as numerals.
Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic languages.

English terms with diacritical marks

diacritics native to Modern Englishrarity in native English usagesome exceptions
Most languages in Western Europe use diacritics on vowels, aside from English where there are typically none (with some exceptions).
Some English language terms have letters with diacritical marks.

Caron

háčekhačekhacek
A caron, háček or haček ( or ; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, flying bird, is a diacritic commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; > ).

Greek diacritics

polytonicpolytonic orthographymonotonic orthography
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.

Digraph (orthography)

digraphdigraphsdouble vowel
Languages from Eastern Europe tend to use diacritics on both consonants and vowels, whereas in Western Europe digraphs are more typically used to change consonant sounds.
As an alternative to digraphs, orthographies and Romanization schemes sometimes use letters with diacritics, like the Czech š, which has the same function as the English digraph sh.

Tilde

~ŨĨ
The tilde has since been applied to a number of other uses as a diacritic mark or a character in its own right.

Tittle

dotdotless idiamond-dots
A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic in the form of a dot on a lowercase i or j.

Double grave accent

double graveȀȄ
The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages.

Abugida

abugidasalphasyllabaryalphasyllabaries
In abugida scripts, like those used to write Hindi and Thai, diacritics indicate vowels, and may occur above, below, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify.
Each syllable is either a letter that represents the sound of a consonant and the inherent vowel, or a letter with a modification to indicate the vowel, either by means of diacritics, or by changes in the form of the letter itself.

Breve

ĔĬŎ
A breve (, less often ; ; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.

Inverted breve

ȂȆȎ
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve .

Bar (diacritic)

barstrokebar diacritic
It may be used as a diacritic to derive new letters from old ones, or simply as an addition to make a grapheme more distinct from others.

Brahmic scripts

Indic scriptsBrahmicBrahmic family
The Indic virama ( ् etc.) and the Arabic sukūn ( ـْـ ) mark the absence of vowels.

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics.

Syllabic consonant

syllabicsyllabic nasalsyllabic fricative
To represent it, the understroke diacritic in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is used,.

Comma

,commascomma below
A comma-shaped mark is used as a diacritic in several writing systems, and is considered distinct from the cedilla.

Dagesh

dagesh kal ּ Dagesh Chazak
The dagesh is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.