A report on Diacritic

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue
Hangul, the Korean alphabet
keyboard
Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography.

Glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph.

- Diacritic
Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue

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Overall

In Welsh, the digraph, fused for a time into a ligature.

Digraph (orthography)

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Pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

Pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

In Welsh, the digraph, fused for a time into a ligature.

As an alternative to digraphs, orthographies and Romanization schemes sometimes use letters with diacritics, like the Czech and Slovak š, which has the same function as the English digraph sh, like the Romanian Ț, which has the same function as the Slavic C, the letter Ť that is used in Czech and Slovak, which has the same function as the Hungarian digraph Ty, and the letter with the cedilla in a few Turkic languages that have the same function as the letter with the cedilla below followed by the letter h in English, for example, ç will become ch in English, and ş will become sh in English.

Acute accent in multiple fonts. Gray letters indicate o kreska in the provided font. Notice that kreska in gray letters are steeper than acute accent in black letters. Also in Adobe HeiTi Std and SimSun, the stroke goes from bottom-left (thicker) to top-right (thinner), showing the rising nature of the tone; however, the acute accent in SimHei is made without variation in thickness.

Acute accent

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Acute accent in multiple fonts. Gray letters indicate o kreska in the provided font. Notice that kreska in gray letters are steeper than acute accent in black letters. Also in Adobe HeiTi Std and SimSun, the stroke goes from bottom-left (thicker) to top-right (thinner), showing the rising nature of the tone; however, the acute accent in SimHei is made without variation in thickness.

The acute accent, ◌́, is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

Bilingual sign showing the use of the circumflex in Welsh as an indicator of length and stress: parêd [paˈreːd] "parade", as opposed to pared [ˈparɛd] "partition wall".

Circumflex

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Bilingual sign showing the use of the circumflex in Welsh as an indicator of length and stress: parêd [paˈreːd] "parade", as opposed to pared [ˈparɛd] "partition wall".

The circumflex (◌̂) is a diacritic in the Latin and Greek scripts that is also used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

U-umlaut on a German traffic sign.

Diaeresis (diacritic)

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U-umlaut on a German traffic sign.
New and old forms of umlaut
Illustration of the development of umlaut: schoen ⇨ schoͤn ⇨ schön ('beautiful'). The Sütterlin script used here is a later development, however.
Letters with umlaut on a German computer keyboard.

The diaeresis (also known as the trema) and the umlaut are two different diacritical marks that (in modern usage) look alike.

Charles Morton's 1759 updated version of Edward Bernard's "Orbis eruditi", comparing all known alphabets as of 1689

Alphabet

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Standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages.

Standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages.

Charles Morton's 1759 updated version of Edward Bernard's "Orbis eruditi", comparing all known alphabets as of 1689
A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia
A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
Illustration from Acta Eruditorum, 1741
Codex Zographensis in the Glagolitic alphabet from Medieval Bulgaria
Zhuyin on a cell phone
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Ge'ez Script of Ethiopia and Eritrea
A Venn diagram showing the Greek (left), Cyrillic (bottom) and Latin (right) alphabets, which share many of the same letters, although they have different pronunciations
Old Georgian alphabet inscription on monastery gate
Terracotta jar (probably inkwell) with abecedarium of the Etruscan alphabet, 630–620 BC

However, Peter T. Daniels distinguishes an abugida, or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both consonants and vowels.

In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin

Pinyin

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Official romanization system for Standard Mandarin Chinese in Mainland China, and to some extent, in Taiwan and Singapore.

Official romanization system for Standard Mandarin Chinese in Mainland China, and to some extent, in Taiwan and Singapore.

In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin
Relative pitch changes of the four tones
Many writers are not yet aware of the rules for dividing text into words by spaces, and either put a space after each syllable, or run all words together. The manufacturer of this image's blankets put unnecessary spaces into the city name, 'Bishikaike' (which is the correct pinyin for 比什凯克, 'Bishkek') on the bottom line, but wrote the English text in the arc on top with no spaces at all.
Single storey a in four different Kai script fonts. Notice that accented pinyin letters are different in style and width with the regular letter.
A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard Chinese is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.

The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, but pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written in the Latin script, and is also used in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

The official chart of the IPA, revised in 2020

International Phonetic Alphabet

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Alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script.

Alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script.

The official chart of the IPA, revised in 2020
Typographic variants include a double-story and single-story g.
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The authors of textbooks or similar publications often create revised versions of the IPA chart to express their own preferences or needs. The image displays one such version. All pulmonic consonants are moved to the consonant chart. Only the black symbols are on the official IPA chart; additional symbols are in grey. The grey fricatives are part of the extIPA, and the grey retroflex letters are mentioned or implicit in the Handbook. The grey click is a retired IPA letter that is still in use.
Phonetic transcriptions of the word international in two English dialects
Tongue positions of cardinal front vowels, with highest point indicated. The position of the highest point is used to determine vowel height and backness.
X-ray photos show the sounds.

IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics.

Grave accent

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The grave accent (`) ( or ) is a diacritical mark used to varying degrees in French, Dutch, Portuguese, Italian and many other western European languages, as well as for a few unusual uses in English.

Comparison of various abugidas descended from Brahmi script. Meaning: May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kalidasa)

Abugida

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Segmental writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are written as units; each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

Segmental writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are written as units; each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

Comparison of various abugidas descended from Brahmi script. Meaning: May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kalidasa)
A 19th-century manuscript in the Devanagari script
The Ge'ez script, an abugida of Eritrea and Ethiopia

Each syllable is either a letter that represents the sound of a consonant and its inherent vowel or a letter modified to indicate the vowel, either by means of diacritics or by changes in the form of the letter itself.

The Lord's Prayer in a 4th-century uncial manuscript Codex Sinaiticus, before the adoption of minuscule polytonic. Note spelling errors: elthatō ē basilia (ΕΛΘΑΤΩΗΒΑΣΙΛΙΑ) instead of elthetō ē basileia (ΕΛΘΕΤΩ Η ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ).

Greek diacritics

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The Lord's Prayer in a 4th-century uncial manuscript Codex Sinaiticus, before the adoption of minuscule polytonic. Note spelling errors: elthatō ē basilia (ΕΛΘΑΤΩΗΒΑΣΙΛΙΑ) instead of elthetō ē basileia (ΕΛΘΕΤΩ Η ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ).
An example of polytonic text with ekphonetic neumes in red ink from a Byzantine manuscript, of 1020 AD, displaying the beginning of the Gospel of Luke (1:3–6)
Coronis, marking crasis in the word
Diaeresis, used to distinguish the word ΑΫΛΟΣ (ἄϋλος, "immaterial") from the word ΑΥΛΟΣ (αὐλός "flute")

Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.