Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSMDSM-IVDSM-IV-TRAxis IIDiagnostic and Statistical ManualDSM-5Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)DSM-IIIDSM-IV (1994)DSM-V
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.wikipedia
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ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders

ICD-10Chapter VICD-10 ChICD-10 codes (personality disorders)
It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, produced by the WHO.
The fifth chapter of ICD-10 contains the International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. It is actually the official mental health system for the US as well, but even many professionals do not realize this due to the dominance of the DSM.

DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersmental health disordersDSM-V
The DSM is in its fifth edition, the DSM-5, published on May 18, 2013.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

Classification of mental disorders

diagnostic categoriespsychiatric diagnosisapproaches
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) produced by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

American Psychiatric Association

APAAmerican Medico-Psychological AssociationAmerican
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
The association publishes various journals and pamphlets, as well as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

Antisocial personality disorder

sociopathsociopathicantisocial
In 1952, the APA listed homosexuality in the DSM as a sociopathic personality disturbance. Personality Disorders include, but are not limited to: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder; and organic intellectual disabilities.
Antisocial personality disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, and removed those no longer considered to be mental disorders.
According to DSM-IV, a mental disorder is a psychological syndrome or pattern which is associated with distress (e.g. via a painful symptom), disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning), increased risk of death, or causes a significant loss of autonomy; however it excludes normal responses such as grief from loss of a loved one, and also excludes deviant behavior for political, religious, or societal reasons not arising from a dysfunction in the individual.

Thomas Szasz

SzaszSzasz, ThomasThomas S. Szasz
These challenges came from psychiatrists like Thomas Szasz, who argued mental illness was a myth used to disguise moral conflicts; from sociologists such as Erving Goffman, who said mental illness was another example of how society labels and controls non-conformists; from behavioural psychologists who challenged psychiatry's fundamental reliance on unobservable phenomena; and from gay rights activists who criticised the APA's listing of homosexuality as a mental disorder.
Szasz argued throughout his career that mental illness is a metaphor for human problems in living, and that mental illnesses are not "illnesses" in the sense that physical illnesses are; and that except for a few identifiable brain diseases, there are "neither biological or chemical tests nor biopsy or necropsy findings for verifying DSM diagnoses."

Neurosis

neuroticneurosespsychoneurosis
The term "reaction" was dropped, but the term "neurosis" was retained.
The term is no longer used by the professional psychiatric community in the United States, having been eliminated from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980 with the publication of DSM III.

Evelyn Hooker

In 1956, however, the psychologist Evelyn Hooker performed a study comparing the happiness and well-adjusted nature of self-identified homosexual men with heterosexual men and found no difference.
Her demonstration that it is not an illness led the way to the eventual removal of homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Robert Spitzer (psychiatrist)

Robert SpitzerRobert L. SpitzerDr. Robert Spitzer
An influential 1974 paper by Robert Spitzer and Joseph L. Fleiss demonstrated the second edition of the DSM (DSM-II) was an unreliable diagnostic tool.
He was a major force in the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
Many were seen as reflections of broad underlying conflicts or maladaptive reactions to life problems, rooted in a distinction between neurosis and psychosis (roughly, anxiety/depression broadly in touch with reality, or hallucinations/delusions appearing disconnected from reality).
The DSM-IV-TR avoids the functional/organic distinction, and instead lists traditional psychotic illnesses, psychosis due to general medical conditions, and substance-induced psychosis.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
The personality disorders were placed on axis II along with mental retardation.
Official criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the fifth chapter of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

ICD-10International Classification of DiseasesICD
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the other common manual for mental disorders.
Like the analogous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (which is limited to psychiatric disorders and almost exclusive to the United States), the ICD is a major project to statistically classify all health disorders, and provide diagnostic assistance.

Paraphilia

sexual perversionparaphiliasparaphilic
For nearly half the disorders, symptoms must be sufficient to cause "clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning", although DSM-IV-TR removed the distress criterion from tic disorders and several of the paraphilias due to their egosyntonic nature.
There is debate over which, if any, of the paraphilias should be listed in diagnostic manuals, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

Tic disorder

tic disorderstics
For nearly half the disorders, symptoms must be sufficient to cause "clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning", although DSM-IV-TR removed the distress criterion from tic disorders and several of the paraphilias due to their egosyntonic nature.
Tic disorders is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements).

Self-defeating personality disorder

masochisticmasochismmasochist
Controversial diagnoses, such as pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder and masochistic personality disorder, were considered and discarded.
It was discussed in an appendix of the revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) in 1987, but was never formally admitted into the manual.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
Mental/Psychiatric/Behavioral/Learning conditions include, but are not limited to: depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia.
It affects about 5–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria.

Pharmaceutical industry

pharmaceutical companypharmaceuticalpharmaceutical companies
It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, produced by the WHO.
It has been argued that the design of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the expansion of the criteria represents an increasing medicalization of human nature, or "disease mongering", driven by drug company influence on psychiatry.

Ego-dystonic sexual orientation

ego-dystonic homosexualityegodystonic sexual orientationhomosexuality
Additionally, the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality replaced the DSM-II category of "sexual orientation disturbance".
The diagnostic category of "ego-dystonic homosexuality" was removed from the American Psychiatric Association's DSM in 1987 (with the publication of the DSM-III-R).

Allen Frances

The task force was chaired by Allen Frances.
Frances chaired the task force that produced the fourth revision of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) and became critical of the current version, DSM-5.

Normality (behavior)

normalnormalitynormalcy
There are ongoing questions concerning the validity and reliability of the diagnostic categories; the reliance on superficial symptoms; the use of artificial dividing lines between categories and from "normality"; possible cultural bias; and medicalization of human distress.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the psychiatric profession's official classification manual of mental disorders since its first published version DSM-I in by the APA, 1952.

Frank Kameny

Dr. Frank KamenyDr. Franklin E. KamenyFranklin E. Kameny
In 1971, gay rights activist Frank Kameny worked with the Gay Liberation Front collective to demonstrate against the APA's convention.
He also worked to remove the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityborderline personalities
Personality Disorders include, but are not limited to: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder; and organic intellectual disabilities.
BPD is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as a personality disorder, along with nine other such disorders.

Irving Bieber

Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals, a large-scale 1962 study of homosexuality by Irving Bieber and other authors, was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationships.
It remained the leading study on homosexuality until homosexuality was removed from DSM-III in 1973.

Narcissistic personality disorder

megalomanianarcissisticmegalomaniac
Personality Disorders include, but are not limited to: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder; and organic intellectual disabilities.
It is a personality disorder classified within cluster B by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).