Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSM-IVDSM-IV-TRDSMDiagnostic and Statistical ManualDSM-III-RDSM-IIDSM IVAxis IIDSM-IIIAxis I
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) (latest edition, the DSM-5, published in 2013) is a publication for the classification of mental disorders using a common language and standard criteria.wikipedia
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United States Army

U.S. ArmyUS ArmyArmy
The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a United States Army manual.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders is produced by the WHO.

Nosology

nosologicalnosologiesdisease classifications
The DSM has received praise for standardizing psychiatric diagnosis grounded in empirical evidence, as opposed to the theory-bound nosology used in DSM-III; but it also generated controversy and criticism. Three years later, the American Statistical Association made an official protest to the U.S. House of Representatives, stating that "the most glaring and remarkable errors are found in the statements respecting nosology, prevalence of insanity, blindness, deafness, and dumbness, among the people of this nation", pointing out that in many towns African-Americans were all marked as insane, and calling the statistics essentially useless.

Reliability (statistics)

reliabilityreliablereliably
Criticisms include ongoing questions concerning the reliability and validity of many diagnoses; the use of arbitrary dividing lines between mental illness and "normality"; possible cultural bias; and the medicalization of human distress.

Validity (statistics)

validityvalidvalidated
Criticisms include ongoing questions concerning the reliability and validity of many diagnoses; the use of arbitrary dividing lines between mental illness and "normality"; possible cultural bias; and the medicalization of human distress.

Cultural bias

cultural assumptionsculturally biasedbiased
Criticisms include ongoing questions concerning the reliability and validity of many diagnoses; the use of arbitrary dividing lines between mental illness and "normality"; possible cultural bias; and the medicalization of human distress.

Medicalization

medicalisationmedicalizedmedicalize
Criticisms include ongoing questions concerning the reliability and validity of many diagnoses; the use of arbitrary dividing lines between mental illness and "normality"; possible cultural bias; and the medicalization of human distress.

Trademark

trademarkstrade marktrademarked
DSM-5, and the abbreviations for all previous editions, are registered trademarks owned by the APA.

1840 United States Census

1840 census18401840 U.S. Census
The first official attempt was the 1840 census, which used a single category: "idiocy/insanity".

Idiot

idiocyidiotseejit
The first official attempt was the 1840 census, which used a single category: "idiocy/insanity".

Insanity

insanemadnessmad
The first official attempt was the 1840 census, which used a single category: "idiocy/insanity".

American Statistical Association

ASAJournal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental StatisticsAmerican Statistical Society
Three years later, the American Statistical Association made an official protest to the U.S. House of Representatives, stating that "the most glaring and remarkable errors are found in the statements respecting nosology, prevalence of insanity, blindness, deafness, and dumbness, among the people of this nation", pointing out that in many towns African-Americans were all marked as insane, and calling the statistics essentially useless.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeU.S. House of RepresentativesUnited States Representative
Three years later, the American Statistical Association made an official protest to the U.S. House of Representatives, stating that "the most glaring and remarkable errors are found in the statements respecting nosology, prevalence of insanity, blindness, deafness, and dumbness, among the people of this nation", pointing out that in many towns African-Americans were all marked as insane, and calling the statistics essentially useless.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
Three years later, the American Statistical Association made an official protest to the U.S. House of Representatives, stating that "the most glaring and remarkable errors are found in the statements respecting nosology, prevalence of insanity, blindness, deafness, and dumbness, among the people of this nation", pointing out that in many towns African-Americans were all marked as insane, and calling the statistics essentially useless.

Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane

The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane was formed in 1844; it has since changed its name twice before the new millennium: in 1892 to the American Medico-Psychological Association, and in 1921 to the present American Psychiatric Association (APA).

Francis Amasa Walker

Francis A. WalkerWalker, Francis AmasaFrancis A. Walker Medal
Edward Jarvis and later Francis Amasa Walker helped expand the census, from two volumes in 1870 to twenty-five volumes in 1880.

Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementia
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Dipsomania

dipsomaniacDipsomaniacscommon drunkard
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Epilepsy

epilepticseizure disorderepilepsies
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Mania

manicmanic episodemanic episodes
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Melancholia

melancholymelancholicblack bile
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Monomania

monomaniacmonomaniacal
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Paresis

pareticweaknessParecís
Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, dipsomania (uncontrollable craving for alcohol), epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and paresis.

Mental health

behavioral healthmentalmental hygiene
In 1917, together with the National Commission on Mental Hygiene (now Mental Health America), the APA developed a new guide for mental hospitals called the Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane.

Clifford Whittingham Beers

Mental Health AmericaClifford BeersClifford W. Beers
In 1917, together with the National Commission on Mental Hygiene (now Mental Health America), the APA developed a new guide for mental hospitals called the Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane.