Dialect

dialectsregiolectdialectalregional dialectvarietiescity dialectregionalismregionalismsbidialectalismBidialectism
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:wikipedia
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Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often largely mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
* One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.
However, any precise estimate depends on the arbitrary and western in its origin distinction (dichotomy) between languages (or rather de:Einzelsprachen) and dialects.

Ethnic group

ethnicityethnicethnic groups
The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class or ethnicity. A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed an ethnolect, and a geographical/regional dialect may be termed a regiolect (alternative terms include 'regionalect', 'geolect', and 'topolect' ).
An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation.

Nonstandard dialect

nonstandardnon-standardnon-standard dialect
In this case, the distinction between the "standard language" (i.e. the "standard" dialect of a particular language) and the "nonstandard" (vernacular) dialects of the same language is often arbitrary and based on social, political, cultural, or historical considerations.
A nonstandard dialect or vernacular dialect is a dialect or language variety that has not historically benefited from the institutional support or sanction that a standard dialect has.

Ethnolect

variety of this dialect
A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed an ethnolect, and a geographical/regional dialect may be termed a regiolect (alternative terms include 'regionalect', 'geolect', and 'topolect' ).
According to another definition, an ethnolect is any speech variety (language, dialect, subdialect) associated with a specific ethnic group.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:
The study of parole (which manifests through cultural discourses and dialects) is the domain of sociolinguistics, the sub-discipline that comprises the study of a complex system of linguistic facets within a certain speech community (governed by its own set of grammatical rules and laws).

Vernacular

vernacular languagevernacular languagesvernacularization
The designation "dialect" is also used popularly to refer to the unwritten or non-codified languages of developing countries or isolated areas, where the term "vernacular language" would be preferred by linguists.
It may vary from more prestigious speech varieties in different ways, in that the vernacular can be a distinct stylistic register, a regional dialect, a sociolect, or an independent language.

Southern American English

Southern accentSouthernSouthern American
Examples of a nonstandard English dialect are Southern American English, Western Australian English, New York English, New England English, Mid-Atlantic American or Philadelphia / Baltimore English, Scouse, Brummie, Cockney, and Tyke.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a regional dialect or collection of dialects of American English spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by White Southerners.

New York City English

New York accentNew York CityNew York English
Examples of a nonstandard English dialect are Southern American English, Western Australian English, New York English, New England English, Mid-Atlantic American or Philadelphia / Baltimore English, Scouse, Brummie, Cockney, and Tyke.
New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.

Philadelphia English

PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia accentPhiladelphia dialect
Examples of a nonstandard English dialect are Southern American English, Western Australian English, New York English, New England English, Mid-Atlantic American or Philadelphia / Baltimore English, Scouse, Brummie, Cockney, and Tyke.
Philadelphia English is a variety or dialect of American English native to Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphia's metropolitan area throughout the Delaware Valley and South Jersey, including Atlantic City and Wilmington, Delaware.

Patois

French PatoiscolloquialGrenadian Creole French
Other types of speech varieties include jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins; and argots.
As such, patois can refer to pidgins, creoles, dialects, or vernaculars, but not commonly to jargon or slang, which are vocabulary-based forms of cant.

Scouse

ScouserLiverpool accentLiverpudlian accent
Examples of a nonstandard English dialect are Southern American English, Western Australian English, New York English, New England English, Mid-Atlantic American or Philadelphia / Baltimore English, Scouse, Brummie, Cockney, and Tyke.
Scouse (sometimes referred to in academic sources as Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the county of Merseyside.

Yorkshire dialect

Yorkshire accentYorkshireTyke
Examples of a nonstandard English dialect are Southern American English, Western Australian English, New York English, New England English, Mid-Atlantic American or Philadelphia / Baltimore English, Scouse, Brummie, Cockney, and Tyke.
The dialect has roots in older languages such as Old English and Old Norse.

British English

BritishEnglishUK
For example, Standard American English, Standard British English, Standard Canadian English, Standard Indian English, Standard Australian English, and Standard Philippine English may all be said to be standard dialects of the English language.
English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands.

Sociolect

sociolectssocialdemotic speech
A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed an ethnolect, and a geographical/regional dialect may be termed a regiolect (alternative terms include 'regionalect', 'geolect', and 'topolect' ).
A sociolect is distinct from a regional dialect (regiolect) because social class rather than geographical subdivision substantiates the unique linguistic features.

Pidgin

pidgin languagepidginsPidgin English
Other types of speech varieties include jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins; and argots.
Trade languages and pidgins can also influence an established language's vernacular, especially amongst people who are directly involved in a trade where that pidgin is commonly used, which can alternatively result in a regional dialect being developed.

Cant (language)

argotcantcryptolect
Other types of speech varieties include jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins; and argots.
Therefore, anti-languages are distinct and unique, and are not simply dialects of existing languages.

Idiolect

speech patternidiolectsideolect
The particular speech patterns used by an individual are termed an idiolect.
This differs from a dialect, a common set of linguistic characteristics shared among some group of people.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often largely mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum.
This continuum is sometimes presented as another example, but the major languages in the group (i.e. Portuguese, Spanish, French and Italian) have had separate standards for longer than the languages in the Continental West Germanic group, and so are not commonly classified as dialects of a common language.

Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialect
According to this definition, any variety of a given language can be classified as "a dialect", including any standardized varieties.
Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government; which, by processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement" and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function", acquire the social prestige associated with commerce and government.

Prestige (sociolinguistics)

prestige dialectprestigeprestige variety
In this sense, unlike in the first usage, the standardized language would not itself be considered a "dialect", as it is the dominant language in a particular state or region, be it in terms of linguistic prestige, social or political (e.g. official) status, predominance or prevalence, or all of the above.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

Pennsylvania Dutch

Pennsylvania GermanPennsylvania GermansDeitsch
Thus there is nothing contradictory in the statement "the language of the Pennsylvania Dutch is a dialect of German".
This older usage of the word Dutch refers to the German settlers, known endonymically as Deutsch (in standard German) or Deitsch (in the principal dialect they spoke, Palatine German); it does not refer to people from the Netherlands.

German dialects

German dialectdialectsdialectal
When talking about the German language, the term German dialects is only used for the traditional regional varieties.
German dialects are dialects often considered languages in their own right and are classified under the umbrella term of "German".

Canadian English

EnglishCanadianCanada
For example, Standard American English, Standard British English, Standard Canadian English, Standard Indian English, Standard Australian English, and Standard Philippine English may all be said to be standard dialects of the English language.
The dialect spoken in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, an autonomous dominion until 31 March 1949, is often considered the most distinctive Canadian English dialect.

Romansh language

RomanshRomanschRumantsch Grischun
Romansh came to be a written language, and therefore it is recognized as a language, even though it is very close to the Lombardic alpine dialects.
]]Romansh comprises a group of closely related dialects, which are most commonly divided into five different varieties, each of which has developed a standardized form.