Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticalHegelian dialecticdialectical methoddialectical reasoningMarxist dialecticdialecticallyHegelian dialecticsdialectic logicdialectical philosophy
Dialectic or dialectics (, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.wikipedia
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Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
Dialectic resembles debate, but the concept excludes subjective elements such as emotional appeal and the modern pejorative sense of rhetoric.
Along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse.

Dialectical materialism

dialecticaldialectical materialistmaterialism
Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism.
In contrast to the Hegelian dialectic, which emphasized the idealist observation that human experience is dependent on the mind's perceptions, Marxist dialectics emphasizes the importance of real-world conditions, in terms of class, labor, and socioeconomic interactions.

Didactic method

didacticsdidacticdidactical
Dialectic may be contrasted with the didactic method, wherein one side of the conversation teaches the other.
The didactic method of instruction is often contrasted with dialectics and the Socratic method; the term can also be used to refer to a specific didactic method, as for instance constructivist didactics.

Critique

criticalCritiquescritic reviews
Dialectic is alternatively known as minor logic, as opposed to major logic or critique.
Critique is also known as major logic, as opposed to minor logic or dialectics.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In classical philosophy, dialectic is a form of reasoning based upon dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses).
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.

Logic and dialectic

Dialectic tends to imply a process of evolution and so does not naturally fit within formal logic (see logic and dialectic).
There have been pre-formal and partially-formal treatises on argument and dialectic, from authors such as Stephen Toulmin (The Uses of Argument), Nicholas Rescher (Dialectics), and van Eemeren and Grootendorst (pragma-dialectics).

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism.
Like Marx, the Young Hegelians were critical of Hegel's metaphysical assumptions, but adopted his dialectical method in order to criticise established society, politics and religion from a leftist perspective.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period (5th to 4th centuries BCE).
Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy.

Thesis, antithesis, synthesis

synthesisthesis, antithesis, and synthesisHegelian synthesis
In classical philosophy, dialectic is a form of reasoning based upon dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses). Hegelian dialectic, usually presented in a threefold manner, was stated by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction; an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis; and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis.
It is often used to explain the dialectical method of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, but Hegel never used the terms himself, as instead his triad was concrete, abstract, absolute.

Materialism

materialistmaterialisticmaterialists
Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism.
They also developed dialectical materialism, through taking Hegelian dialectics, stripping them of their idealist aspects and fusing them with materialism (see Modern philosophy).

Dialectical logic

This process is particularly marked in Hegelian dialectic and even more so in Marxist dialectic which may rely on the evolution of ideas over longer time periods in the real world; dialectical logic attempts to address this.
The precise nature of the relation between dialectical and formal logic was hotly debated within the Soviet Union and China.

Zeno of Elea

ZenoDemylus
Aristotle said that it was the pre-Socratic philosopher Zeno of Elea who invented dialectic, of which the dialogues of Plato are the examples of the Socratic dialectical method.
Aristotle called him the inventor of the dialectic.

Peter Abelard

AbelardPierre AbélardAbélard
After him, many scholastic philosophers also made use of dialectics in their works, such as Abelard, William of Sherwood, Garlandus Compotista, Walter Burley, Roger Swyneshed, William of Ockham, and Thomas Aquinas.
His father, a knight called Berenger, encouraged Pierre to study the liberal arts, wherein he excelled at the art of dialectic (a branch of philosophy), which, at that time, consisted chiefly of the logic of Aristotle transmitted through Latin channels.

Science of Logic

LogicThe Science of Logic
In the Logic, for instance, Hegel describes a dialectic of existence: first, existence must be posited as pure Being (Sein); but pure Being, upon examination, is found to be indistinguishable from Nothing (Nichts).
Hegel's logic is a system of dialectics, i.e., a dialectical metaphysics: it is a development of the principle that thought and being constitute a single and active unity.

Truth

trueTruth theorytheory of truth
Dialectic or dialectics (, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Teleological truth moves itself in the three-step form of dialectical triplicity toward the final goal of perfect, final, absolute truth.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period (5th to 4th centuries BCE).
Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice.

Master–slave dialectic

Master-slave dialecticLord and Bondsmanconflict between master and slave
For Hegel, the whole of history is one tremendous dialectic, major stages of which chart a progression from self-alienation as slavery to self-unification and realization as the rational constitutional state of free and equal citizens.
The essence of the dialectic is the movement or motion of recognizing, in which the two self-consciousnesses are constituted in being each recognized as self-conscious by the other.

Socratic method

SocraticMaieuticselenchus
The Socratic dialogues are a particular form of dialectic known as the method of elenchus (literally, "refutation, scrutiny" ) whereby a series of questions clarifies a more precise statement of a vague belief, logical consequences of that statement are explored, and a contradiction is discovered.
But in his later dialogues, such as Theaetetus or Sophist, Plato had a different method to philosophical discussions, namely dialectic.

Contradiction

contradictorycontradictionscontradicts
Within Hegelianism, the word dialectic has the specialised meaning of a contradiction between ideas that serves as the determining factor in their relationship.

Aufheben

sublationsublatedAufhebung
To describe the activity of overcoming the negative, Hegel also often used the term Aufhebung, variously translated into English as "sublation" or "overcoming", to conceive of the working of the dialectic.
His conception of historical progress follows a dialectic spiral, in which the thesis is opposed by the antithesis, itself sublated by the synthesis.

Frankfurt School

cultural Marxismcritical theoryThe Frankfurt School
A dialectical method was fundamental to Marxist politics, e.g., the works of Karl Korsch, Georg Lukács and certain members of the Frankfurt School.
The emphasis upon the critical component of social theory derived from surpassing the ideological limitations of positivism, materialism, and determinism, by returning to the critical philosophy of Kant, and his successors in German idealism — principally the philosophy of G.W.F. Hegel, which emphasised dialectic and contradiction as intellectual properties inherent to the human grasp of material reality.

Debate

debatingdebating societySpeech and Debate
Dialectic resembles debate, but the concept excludes subjective elements such as emotional appeal and the modern pejorative sense of rhetoric.

Evald Ilyenkov

Evald Vassilievich IlyenkovE. W. Iljenkow Ilyenkov
Soviet academics, notably Evald Ilyenkov and Zaid Orudzhev, continued pursuing unorthodox philosophic study of Marxist dialectics; likewise in the West, notably the philosopher Bertell Ollman at New York University.
Evald Ilyenkov did original work on the materialist development of Hegel's dialectics, notable for his account of concrete universals.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

HegelG. W. F. HegelG.W.F. Hegel
The concept of dialectics was given new life by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (following Johann Gottlieb Fichte), whose dialectically synthetic model of nature and of history made it, as it were, a fundamental aspect of the nature of reality (instead of regarding the contradictions into which dialectics leads as a sign of the sterility of the dialectical method, as Immanuel Kant tended to do in his Critique of Pure Reason).
In this work, civil society (Hegel used the term "bürgerliche Gesellschaft" though it is now referred to as Zivilgesellschaft in German to emphasize a more inclusive community) was a stage in the dialectical relationship that occurs between Hegel's perceived opposites, the macro-community of the state and the micro-community of the family.

Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus

Chalybäus
Hegelian dialectic, usually presented in a threefold manner, was stated by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction; an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis; and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis.
Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus (3 July 1796, in Pfaffroda – 22 September 1862, in Dresden) was a German philosopher best known for his exegetical work on philosophy, such as his characterisation of Hegel's dialectic ("an sich", "fuer sich", "an sich und fuer sich") positing a triad of "thesis–antithesis–synthesis."