Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticaldialectical methodHegelian dialecticdialectical reasoningdialecticallydialectic logicdialectical philosophydialectical processHegel's dialectical method
Dialectic or dialectics (, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.wikipedia
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Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetoricalrhetor
Dialectic resembles debate, but the concept excludes subjective elements such as emotional appeal and the modern pejorative sense of rhetoric. Logic, which could be considered to include dialectic, was one of the three liberal arts taught in medieval universities as part of the trivium; the other elements were rhetoric and grammar.
From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella) is one of the three ancient arts of discourse, played a central role in Western education in training orators, lawyers, counsellors, historians, statesmen, and poets.

Didactic method

didacticsdidacticteaching
Dialectic may be contrasted with the didactic method, wherein one side of the conversation teaches the other.
The didactic method of instruction is often contrasted with dialectics and the Socratic method; the term can also be used to refer to a specific didactic method, as for instance constructivist didactics.

Dialectical materialism

dialectical materialistmaterialismdialectic materialism
Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism.
In contrast to the Hegelian dialectic, which emphasized the idealist observation that human experience is dependent on the mind's perceptions, Marxist dialectics emphasizes the importance of real world conditions, in terms of class, labor, and socioeconomic interactions.

Critique

criticalcritiquescritic reviews
Dialectic is alternatively known as minor logic, as opposed to major logic or critique.
Critique is also known as major logic, as opposed to minor logic or dialectics.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In classical philosophy, dialectic is a form of reasoning based upon dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses).
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.

Logic and dialectic

Dialectic tends to imply a process of evolution and so does not naturally fit within formal logic (see logic and dialectic).
There have been pre-formal and partially-formal treatises on argument and dialectic, from authors such as Stephen Toulmin (The Uses of Argument), Nicholas Rescher (Dialectics), and van Eemeren and Grootendorst (pragma-dialectics).

Karl Marx

MarxMarxistMarxian
Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism.
Like Marx, the Young Hegelians were critical of Hegel's metaphysical assumptions, but adopted his dialectical method in order to criticise established society, politics and religion from a leftist perspective.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period (5th to 4th centuries BCE).
Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy.

Socratic method

Socraticmaieuticelenchus
The Socratic dialogues are a particular form of dialectic known as the method of elenchus (literally, "refutation, scrutiny" ) whereby a series of questions clarifies a more precise statement of a vague belief, logical consequences of that statement are explored, and a contradiction is discovered.
It is a dialectical method, involving a discussion in which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the defender's point.

Materialism

materialistmaterialisticmaterialists
Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism.
They also developed dialectical materialism, through taking Hegelian dialectics, stripping them of their idealist aspects, and fusing them with materialism (see Modern philosophy).

Dialectical logic

This process is particularly marked in Hegelian dialectic and even more so in Marxist dialectic which may rely on the evolution of ideas over longer time periods in the real world; dialectical logic attempts to address this.
The precise nature of the relation between dialectical and formal logic was hotly debated within the Soviet Union and China.

Zeno of Elea

ZenoDemylusZenon
Aristotle said that it was the pre-Socratic philosopher Zeno of Elea who invented dialectic, of which the dialogues of Plato are the examples of the Socratic dialectical method.
Aristotle called him the inventor of the dialectic.

Thesis, antithesis, synthesis

synthesisthesis, antithesis, and synthesisthesis–antithesis–synthesis
In classical philosophy, dialectic is a form of reasoning based upon dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses).
The relation between the three abstract terms of the triad, also known as the dialectical method, is summarized in the following way in the Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions :

Trivium

classical liberal arts curriculumclassical triviumhumanities
Logic, which could be considered to include dialectic, was one of the three liberal arts taught in medieval universities as part of the trivium; the other elements were rhetoric and grammar.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric.

Peter Abelard

AbelardAbélardPeter Abélard
After him, many scholastic philosophers also made use of dialectics in their works, such as Abelard, William of Sherwood, Garlandus Compotista, Walter Burley, Roger Swyneshed, William of Ockham, and Thomas Aquinas.
His father, a knight called Berenger, encouraged Pierre to study the liberal arts, wherein he excelled at the art of dialectic (a branch of philosophy), which, at that time, consisted chiefly of the logic of Aristotle transmitted through Latin channels.

Truth

truetheory of truthtruth theory
Dialectic or dialectics (, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Teleological truth moves itself in the three-step form of dialectical triplicity toward the final goal of perfect, final, absolute truth.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
Dialectic is alternatively known as minor logic, as opposed to major logic or critique.
This ancient motivation is still alive, although it no longer takes centre stage in the picture of logic; typically dialectical logic forms the heart of a course in critical thinking, a compulsory course at many universities.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period (5th to 4th centuries BCE).
Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice.

Science of Logic

LogicThe Science of Logic
In the Logic, for instance, Hegel describes a dialectic of existence: first, existence must be posited as pure Being (Sein); but pure Being, upon examination, is found to be indistinguishable from Nothing (Nichts). When it is realized that what is coming into being is, at the same time, also returning to nothing (in life, for example, one's living is also a dying), both Being and Nothing are united as Becoming.
As developed, it included the fullest description of his dialectic.

Master–slave dialectic

master-slave dialecticLord and Bondsmanconflict between master and slave
For Hegel, the whole of history is one tremendous dialectic, major stages of which chart a progression from self-alienation as slavery to self-unification and realization as the rational constitutional state of free and equal citizens.
The essence of the dialectic is the movement or motion of recognizing, in which the two self-consciousnesses are constituted in being each recognized as self-conscious by the other.

Contradiction

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Within Hegelianism, the word dialectic has the specialised meaning of a contradiction between ideas that serves as the determining factor in their relationship.
Hegelian and Marxist theory stipulates that the dialectic nature of history will lead to the sublation, or synthesis, of its contradictions.

Aufheben

sublationsublatedAufhebung
To describe the activity of overcoming the negative, Hegel also often used the term Aufhebung, variously translated into English as "sublation" or "overcoming," to conceive of the working of the dialectic.
His conception of historical progress follows a dialectic spiral, in which the thesis is opposed by the antithesis, itself sublated by the synthesis.

Frankfurt School

cultural MarxismCritical Theorycultural Marxists
A dialectical method was fundamental to Marxist politics, e.g., the works of Karl Korsch, Georg Lukács and certain members of the Frankfurt School.
The emphasis upon the critical component of social theory derived from surpassing the ideological limitations of positivism, materialism, and determinism, by returning to the critical philosophy of Kant, and his successors in German idealism — principally the philosophy of G.W.F. Hegel, which emphasised dialectic and contradiction as intellectual properties inherent to the human grasp of material reality.

Debate

debatingdebatesdebate team
Dialectic resembles debate, but the concept excludes subjective elements such as emotional appeal and the modern pejorative sense of rhetoric.
Dialectics

Evald Ilyenkov

E. W. IljenkowIlyenkov Ilyenkov
Soviet academics, notably Evald Ilyenkov and Zaid Orudzhev, continued pursuing unorthodox philosophic study of Marxist dialectics; likewise in the West, notably the philosopher Bertell Ollman at New York University.
Evald Ilyenkov did original work on the materialist development of Hegel's dialectics, notable for his account of concrete universals.