Dialysis

kidney dialysisrenal dialysisdialysis machinedialysaterenalDialysis machinesdialyzablehemodialysiskidney dialysis machinesAcute Dialysis Unit
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, Dialysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dia, "through", and λύσις, lysis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally.wikipedia
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Peritoneal dialysis

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisIntraperitoneal dialysis solutionAmbulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
The two main types of dialysis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, remove wastes and excess water from the blood in different ways. There are three primary and two secondary types of dialysis: hemodialysis (primary), peritoneal dialysis (primary), hemofiltration (primary), hemodiafiltration (secondary) and intestinal dialysis (secondary). In peritoneal dialysis, wastes and water are removed from the blood inside the body using the peritoneum as a natural semipermeable membrane.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis which uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.

Hemodialysis

haemodialysisdialysisScribner shunt
The two main types of dialysis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, remove wastes and excess water from the blood in different ways. There are three primary and two secondary types of dialysis: hemodialysis (primary), peritoneal dialysis (primary), hemofiltration (primary), hemodiafiltration (secondary) and intestinal dialysis (secondary).
This type of dialysis achieves the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of kidney failure.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
The kidneys have an important role in maintaining health.
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.

Renal replacement therapy

renal replacement therapieskidney replacement therapy
This is referred to as renal replacement therapy.
Renal replacement therapy includes dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), hemofiltration, and hemodiafiltration, which are various ways of filtration of blood with or without machines.

Protein purification

purifiedpurificationisolate
This can be used to purify proteins of interest from a complex mixture by removing smaller proteins and molecules.
Subsequently, ammonium sulfate can be removed using dialysis.

Renin

HyperreninemiaRENblood plasma renin
The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin, calcitriol and renin.
This disease is autosomal dominant, meaning that it is characterized by a 50% chance of inheritance and is a slowly progressive chronic kidney disease that leads to the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Ultrafiltration

ultrafiltrateultraultrafilter
Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through diffusion (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal).
Blood dialysis also utilizes ultrafiltration.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Dialysis is used in patients with rapidly developing loss of kidney function, called acute kidney injury (previously called acute renal failure), or slowly worsening kidney function, called Stage 5 chronic kidney disease, (previously called chronic kidney failure and end-stage renal disease and end-stage kidney disease).
The term "non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease" (NDD-CKD) is a designation used to encompass the status of those persons with an established CKD who do not yet require the life-supporting treatments for kidney failure known as kidney replacement therapy (RRT, including maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation).

Medicare (United States)

MedicareMedicare (US)Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act
In the United States, hemodialysis treatments are typically given in a dialysis center three times per week (due in the United States to Medicare reimbursement rules); however, as of 2005 over 2,500 people in the United States are dialyzing at home more frequently for various treatment lengths.
Part B coverage includes outpatient physician services, visiting nurse, and other services such as x-rays, laboratory and diagnostic tests, influenza and pneumonia vaccinations, blood transfusions, renal dialysis, outpatient hospital procedures, limited ambulance transportation, immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients, chemotherapy, hormonal treatments such as Lupron, and other outpatient medical treatments administered in a doctor's office.

Hemofiltration

hemodiafiltrationcontinuous renal replacement therapycontinuous hemofiltration
There are three primary and two secondary types of dialysis: hemodialysis (primary), peritoneal dialysis (primary), hemofiltration (primary), hemodiafiltration (secondary) and intestinal dialysis (secondary).
As in dialysis, in hemofiltration one achieves movement of solutes across a semi-permeable membrane.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
The decision to initiate dialysis or hemofiltration in patients with kidney failure depends on several factors.
The underlying cause must be identified and treated to arrest the progress, and dialysis may be necessary to bridge the time gap required for treating these fundamental causes.

Kidney transplantation

kidney transplantrenal transplantationrenal transplant
Dialysis is used as a temporary measure in either acute kidney injury or in those awaiting kidney transplant and as a permanent measure in those for whom a transplant is not indicated or not possible.
The kidney was the easiest organ to transplant: tissue typing was simple; the organ was relatively easy to remove and implant; live donors could be used without difficulty; and in the event of failure, kidney dialysis was available from the 1940s.

Leonard Rowntree

In 1913, Leonard Rowntree and John Abel of Johns Hopkins Hospital developed the first dialysis system which they successfully tested in animals.
He is most well known for pioneering kidney research including the Rowntree test for kidney function; dialysis; the intravenous pyelogram and plasmapheresis.

Metabolic acidosis

Hypokalemic acidosismetabolicacidosis
For another solute, bicarbonate, dialysis solution level is set at a slightly higher level than in normal blood, to encourage diffusion of bicarbonate into the blood, to act as a pH buffer to neutralize the metabolic acidosis that is often present in these patients.
If the acidosis is particularly severe and/or intoxication may be present, consultation with the nephrology team is considered useful, as dialysis may clear both the intoxication and the acidosis.

Thomas Graham (chemist)

Thomas GrahamGrahamGraham, Thomas
Thomas Graham (21 December 1805 – 16 September 1869) was a British chemist known for his pioneering work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases.

Peritoneum

peritonealintraperitonealparietal peritoneum
In peritoneal dialysis, wastes and water are removed from the blood inside the body using the peritoneum as a natural semipermeable membrane.
In one form of dialysis, called peritoneal dialysis, a glucose solution is sent through a tube into the peritoneal cavity.

Hepatorenal syndrome

kidney malfunction and increased liver insufficiency
HRS is usually fatal unless a liver transplant is performed, although various treatments, such as dialysis, can prevent advancement of the condition.

Nephrology

nephrologistrenal medicinekidney disease
The levels of the components of dialysate are typically prescribed by a nephrologist according to the needs of the individual patient.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatric medicine that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).

Nils Alwall

Nils Alwall modified a similar construction to the Kolff dialysis machine by enclosing it inside a stainless steel canister.
Nils Alwall (1904, Kiaby – 1986), a Swedish professor, was a pioneer in hemodialysis and the inventor of one of the first practical dialysis machines.

Encephalopathy

encephalomyopathyencephalopathiesstatic encephalopathy
In severe cases, dialysis or organ replacement surgery may be needed.

Renal function

glomerular filtration ratekidney functioncreatinine clearance
Chronic dialysis may be indicated when a patient has symptomatic kidney failure and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 15 mL/min).

Patient transport

non-emergency patient transport
Patient transport services are generally provided without charge, for patients who need to travel to dialysis centres.
Cornwall Clinical Commissioning Group proposed to restrict this provision for dialysis patients for those who did not have specific medical or financial reasons in 2018 but changed their minds after a campaign led by Kidney Care UK and decided to fund transport for patients requiring dialysis three times a week for a minimum of six weeks, or six times a month for a minimum of three months.

Synthetic membrane

membranemembranesartificial membrane
Biocompatible synthetic membranes, specific small size material dialyzers and new low extra-corporeal volume tubing have been developed for young infants.
Porous membranes find use in the microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and dialysis applications.

Acute kidney injury

acute renal failureacute kidney failureuremic poisoning
Dialysis is used in patients with rapidly developing loss of kidney function, called acute kidney injury (previously called acute renal failure), or slowly worsening kidney function, called Stage 5 chronic kidney disease, (previously called chronic kidney failure and end-stage renal disease and end-stage kidney disease).
Lack of improvement with fluid resuscitation, therapy-resistant hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, or fluid overload may necessitate artificial support in the form of dialysis or hemofiltration.