Diazepam

ValiumDizacCANADiastatdiazapamDiazemulsdiazepam (Valium)diazepaneLamraQ-Pam
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.wikipedia
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Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

alcohol withdrawalwithdrawalalcohol
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.
The typical treatment of alcohol withdrawal is with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
Diazepam is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
* Diazepam

Hoffmann-La Roche

RocheHoffmann–La RocheHoffman-La Roche
Diazepam was patented in 1959 by Hoffmann-La Roche.
In 1957 it introduced the class of tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines (with Valium and Rohypnol being the best known members).

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
Intravenous diazepam or lorazepam are first-line treatments for status epilepticus. Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate.
Intravenous diazepam or lorazepam are first-line treatments for convulsive status epilepticus.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

LSDacidLSD-25
Agitation can be safely addressed with benzodiazepines such as lorazepam or diazepam.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.
Long half-life benzodiazepines like diazepam or chlordiazepoxide are preferred to minimize rebound effects and are available in low potency dose forms.

Tizanidine

Zanaflex
Baclofen or tizanidine is sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam.
Effectiveness appears similar to baclofen or diazepam.

Benzodiazepine dependence

dependencean addiction to the sleeping drug BenzodiazepineBarbiturate type dependence
Long term use can result in tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms on dose reduction.
While many of the neuroactive steroids do not produce full tolerance to their therapeutic effects, cross-tolerance to benzodiazepines still occurs as had been demonstrated between the neuroactive steroid ganaxolone and diazepam.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.

Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use

Long-term effects of benzodiazepineslong-term use of benzodiazepinesContinued use despite harmful consequences
Long term use can result in tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms on dose reduction.
A publication has asked in 1981 if lorazepam is more toxic than diazepam.

Epilepsy

epilepticseizure disorderepilepsies
They include suicide, decreased breathing, and an increased risk of seizures if used too frequently in those with epilepsy.
Diazepam may also be used rectally.

Physostigmine

eserineAntiliriumPhysiostigmin
The anticonvulsant effects of diazepam can help in the treatment of seizures due to a drug overdose or chemical toxicity as a result of exposure to sarin, VX, or soman (or other organophosphate poisons), lindane, chloroquine, physostigmine, or pyrethroids.
Physostigmine also has other proposed uses: it could reverse undesired side effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam, alleviating anxiety and tension.

Intramuscular injection

intramuscularinjection into a muscleinjection into muscle
It can be taken by mouth, inserted into the rectum, injected into muscle, or injected into a vein.

Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam or clonazepam, are not generally recommended, and their effectiveness is unknown.

Anxiety disorder

anxiety disordersanxietynervous disorder
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.
Buspirone and pregabalin are second-line treatments for people who do not respond to SSRIs or SNRIs; there is also evidence that benzodiazepines including diazepam and clonazepam are effective but have fallen out of favor due to the risk of dependence and abuse.

VX (nerve agent)

VXVX nerve agentVX gas
The anticonvulsant effects of diazepam can help in the treatment of seizures due to a drug overdose or chemical toxicity as a result of exposure to sarin, VX, or soman (or other organophosphate poisons), lindane, chloroquine, physostigmine, or pyrethroids.
An individual known to have been exposed to a nerve-agent, or who exhibits definite signs or symptoms of nerve-agent exposure is generally given the antidotes atropine and pralidoxime (2-PAM), as well an injected sedative/antiepileptic such as diazepam.

Magnesium sulfate

Epsom saltsEpsom saltmagnesium sulphate
Diazepam is used for the emergency treatment of eclampsia, when IV magnesium sulfate and blood-pressure control measures have failed.

Tetanus

Phenobarbital

phenobarbitoneLuminalHaplos
The first-line drugs for treatment of status epilepticus are benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam or diazepam.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
Other skeletal muscle relaxants of that type used around the world come from a number of drug categories and other drugs used primarily for this indication include orphenadrine (anticholinergic), chlorzoxazone, tizanidine (clonidine relative), diazepam, tetrazepam and other benzodiazepines, mephenoxalone, methocarbamol, dantrolene, baclofen, Drugs once but no longer or very rarely used to relax skeletal muscles include meprobamate, barbiturates, methaqualone, glutethimide and the like; some subcategories of opioids have muscle relaxant properties, and some are marketed in combination drugs with skeletal and/or smooth muscle relaxants such as whole opium products, some ketobemidone, piritramide and fentanyl preparations and Equagesic.

Oxazepam

SeraxSerestaRondar
Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate.
It is a metabolite of diazepam, prazepam, and temazepam, and has moderate amnesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties compared to other benzodiazepines.

Mark I NAAK

MARK IMark I Nerve Agent Antidote KitMk I Nerve Agent Antidote Kit
One CANA kit is typically issued to service members, along with three Mark I NAAK kits, when operating in circumstances where chemical weapons in the form of nerve agents are considered a potential hazard.
Along with the three kits are issued one CANA (Convulsive Antidote, Nerve Agent) for simultaneous use.

Bromazepam

Lexotanilbromazepanlexotan
Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate.
It is mainly an anti-anxiety agent with similar side effects to diazepam (Valium).

Eclampsia

eclamptic psychosispre-eclampsia or eclampsiapregnancy-induced
Diazepam is used for the emergency treatment of eclampsia, when IV magnesium sulfate and blood-pressure control measures have failed.
Magnesium sulfate results in better outcomes than diazepam, phenytoin or a combination of chlorpromazine, promethazine, and pethidine.