Dictionary

dictionariesonline dictionaryList of English dictionariesEnglish dictionaryonline dictionariesEnglish dictionariesMajor English dictionariesonlinewordbookBritish lexicographer
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.wikipedia
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Bilingual dictionary

bilingual dictionariestranslation dictionarydictionary
There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual (translation) dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms (thesauri), and rhyming dictionaries.
A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another.

Lexicography

lexicographerlexicographerslexicographical
It is a lexicographical reference that shows inter-relationships among the data.

Word

wordsverballexical
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.
Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon (i.e., its vocabulary) into lemmas.

Thesaurus

thesauri
There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual (translation) dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms (thesauri), and rhyming dictionaries.
In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order.

Lexicon

lexicallexicallylexicons
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.
Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language; usually, however, bound morphemes are not included.

Collation

collatedcollatecollating
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.
For example, German dictionaries and telephone directories use different approaches.

Explanatory dictionary

monolingual dictionaryexplanatorymonolingual
The word dictionary (unqualified) is usually understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary.
An explanatory dictionary or monolingual dictionary is a dictionary that gives additional information, e. g. on pronunciation, grammar, meaning, etymology etc. Such dictionaries are usually meant for the native speakers of the language.

Frahang-i Pahlavig

An old Pahlavi-Pazand GlossaryAramaeogramhozwārishn
In Frahang-i Pahlavig, Aramaic heterograms are listed together with their translation in Middle Persian language and phonetic transcription in Pazand alphabet.
Frahang-ī Pahlavīg (Middle Persian: 𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭭𐭢 𐭯𐭧𐭫𐭥𐭩𐭪‎‎ "Pahlavi dictionary") is the title of an anonymous dictionary of unknown date of (mostly) Aramaic logograms with Middle Persian translations (in Pahlavi script) and transliterations (in Pazend script).

Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española

The first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was the Spanish, written by Sebastián Covarrubias' Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, published in 1611 in Madrid, Spain.
The Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española (Treasury of Castilian or Spanish Language) is a dictionary of the Spanish language, written by Sebastián de Covarrubias in 1611.

Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca

Tuscan dictionaryVocabolario della lingua italiana
In 1612 the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, for Italian, was published.
The Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca was the first dictionary of the Italian language, published in 1612 by the Accademia della Crusca.

Terminology

termtermsterminologies
Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study.

Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

Dictionnaireofficial dictionary of the French languageAcademy's dictionary
In 1694 appeared the first edition of the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française.
The Dictionnaire de l'Académie française is the official dictionary of the French language.

Deutsches Wörterbuch

German DictionaryDictionary of GermanGrimm's dictionary
And in 1858 was published the first volume of the Deutsches Wörterbuch by the Brothers Grimm; the work was completed in 1961.
The Deutsches Wörterbuch ("The German Dictionary"), abbreviated DWB, is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the German language in existence.

Duden

Duden HandbookDuden dictionaryDuden Schulbuch
The Duden dictionary dates back to 1880, and is currently the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.

Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal

Woerdenboek der Nederlandsche TaalWoordenboek der Nederlandse Taal
In the same year 1863 appeared the first volume of the Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal which was completed in 1998.
Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (Dictionary of the Dutch language, commonly abbreviated WNT) is a dictionary of the Dutch language.

Sanas Cormaic

Cormac's GlossarySanas Cormaic (Cormac's Glossary)Sanas Cormaic, an Old Irish Glossary
A 9th-century CE Irish dictionary, Sanas Cormaic, contained etymologies and explanations of over 1,400 Irish words.
It is held to be the earliest linguistic dictionary in any of the non-classical languages of Europe.

Lexicology

lexicologistlexicallexicographer
Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study.
A familiar example of lexicology at work is that of dictionaries and thesauri.

Ambrogio Calepino

Calepino
In 1502 Ambrogio Calepino's Dictionarium was published, originally a monolingual Latin dictionary, which over the course of the 16th century was enlarged to become a multilingual glossary.
His Latin dictionary appeared first in 1502 at Reggio.

Apollonius the Sophist

Apollonius SophistaApollonius
Apollonius the Sophist (fl.
He was the author of a Homeric dictionary, the only work of this kind existent today.

Robert Cawdrey

Robert Cawdry
The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604.
1538 – after 1604) was an English clergyman who produced one of the first dictionaries of the English language, the Table Alphabeticall, in 1604.

Linguistic prescription

prescriptiveprescriptive grammarprescriptivist
The Duden dictionary dates back to 1880, and is currently the prescriptive source for the spelling of German. There is also a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries; the former reflect what is seen as correct use of the language while the latter reflect recorded actual use.
Since the mid-20th century some dictionaries and style guides, which are prescriptive works by nature, have increasingly integrated descriptive material and approaches.

A Dictionary of the English Language

DictionaryJohnson's DictionaryDictionary of the English Language
It was not until Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language (1755) that a more reliable English dictionary was produced.
Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.

Table Alphabeticall

A Table Alphabeticall
The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604.
A Table Alphabeticall is the abbreviated title of the first monolingual dictionary in English, created by Robert Cawdrey and first published in London in 1604.

Erya

Erh YaErh-yaReady Guide
A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary; although some sources cite the c. 800 BCE Shizhoupian as a "dictionary", modern scholarship considers it a calligraphic compendium of Chinese characters from Zhou dynasty bronzes.
The Erya has been described as a dictionary, glossary, synonymicon, thesaurus, and encyclopaedia.

Svenska Akademiens ordbok

Academy's dictionarySAOB
The decision to start work on the Svenska Akademiens ordbok was taken in 1787.
Svenska Akademiens ordbok, abbreviated SAOB, is a dictionary published by the Swedish Academy, with the official title Ordbok över svenska språket utgiven av Svenska Akademien.